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2

On wikipedia, it says 449000 m or 0.000646 of the sun's radius.


1

Let's assume the light from the Sun is parallel, then the shadow of Earth looks like this: The dotted line is the orbit of the satellite at a height $h$ (I've exaggerated the height a bit to make the diagram clearer). All we have to do is calculate the angle $\theta$, because the time the satellite is in the Earth's shadow is simply: $$ t = \tau ...


0

The tides would be shorter, as the speed of the moon relative to the earths surface would change. Currently the tides change from furthest out to in every 6hrs and 12mins. This is due to the fact that the earth rotates once every 24 hours, and the tide changes every time the moon gets 1 quater of the way around the earth. 24/4 = 6 hours, plus 12 minutes ...


2

See this explanation from here: Right at the heart of the Earth is a solid inner core, two thirds of the size of the Moon and composed primarily of iron. At a hellish 5,700°C, this iron is as hot as the Sun’s surface, but the crushing pressure caused by gravity prevents it from becoming liquid. Surrounding this is the outer core, a 2,000 km thick layer of ...


1

Simple, empirical questions to ask a person who believes the earth is flat: If the earth is flat, there must be countries that live on the edge, literally. In this day and age, why haven't we seen any videos from these spectacular sites? Why haven't we heard of any accidents where a person got drunk and fell off the edge? Better yet: would such a person ...


0

Fly in a plane with that person. With enough fuel one day you guys shall reach at where you had started. This will prove that earth is round. Response to comments: All material objects apply the gravitational force on all other material objects. The earth is made up of atoms,molecules etc, all these constituent particles exert force on each other. All ...


5

Think of a circle first. So if you look at the whole circle you see it as round. Now just zoom into a small part of that circle. Now you don't see the whole cricle any more. But still you see a curvature. Similarly you making the cirlce larger and look into the same point. When the circle get large the difference between one point and the next point looks ...


-2

Show them a lunar eclipse. A flat earth would not always cast a round shadow on the moon.


1

Use Google Earth: Start at high zoom level at your location, or anywhere — so that Earth would actually feel flat, as it does normally Use middle mouse button to rotate camera to get view parallel to Earth or similar Gradually zoom out showing how the curvature becomes more and more apparent as you go deeper to space Finally you are looking at the Earth ...


2

The simplest thing to do would be to point them to the sun and show a person that it's round. Also point out that how could sun move below horizon if it was flat? And one thing more, you could achieve with a clock. Get a clock and travel 3000 miles and ask a person why did the sun rised later/sooner, while the clock is moving at constant speed.


1

Possible options Show them picture of earth (taken from space) If the guy believes in Mathematics , ask him to measure distance between two far separated points. ( The metric of sphere will serve the purpose and not the Euclidean one) Go for a straight nose tour along any direction till you come at the same point. ( nothing as such can happen in a flat ...


3

If the landscape in front of you and your sceptical 'other people' is very flat, some curvature is still perceptible (but only just). Standing at a higher vantage point will increase your ability to see the curvature. I see this regularly near where I live, as I drive to the top of an escarpment and look down at the very flat Vale of York. This effect will ...


5

Tell them to take a flight to the edge. And call us there when they reach it.


6

If showing them a picture taken from space won't convince them, I doubt there is anything you can do about it.


1

I thought the tilt was caused by the formation of the earth. When the earth formed from the gas of the pre-solar system, the gasses rotated and created a disk with an axis of near 23 degrees. When the disk got dense enough, it condensed it to spheroid we know know and love, keeping its tilt from its gassy days. Taking into consideration a collision that ...


0

This would be better in astronomy since the earth collided with another planet size rock and the moon was the result. Since the center of the earth is fluid, the tilt of the axis would vary considerable, but the moon has a stabilizing effect.


1

An impact, possibly the same impact that caused material from earth to fly off to space and create the moon, tilted the earth to $23.5^o$


0

It's not constant, so there is no magic about it. It varies within a range, reflecting stabilising interactions with the moon and the sun, and the equatorial bulge.


0

There is a precession of the earth's axis of rotation -evidenced by astronomical observation- that is most easily explained by Newton's laws and a non-spherical earth. @Ross Milikan suggested in a comment that this was not an answer because precession only shows that the moments about the principle axes are unequal - and this could be caused by a ...


0

The subsolar point is the point on the earth's surface where the sun is directly overhead. The formula you give uses the longitude of this. Take the difference of this from the longitude for the poles of whichever geomagnetic reference model you are using.


1

Earth's magnetic field isn't really a dipole, but a dynamic field due to the convection occurring in the planet's core (consists of molten iron). The model below shows a simulation of the magnetic field (blue is pointing towards the core while yellow points away), the cluster of curves in the middle is the planet's core. The geomagnetic pole is the ...


2

Earth is really, really big (in comparison to that projectile). In order for an object to completely penetrate it, it would need to have enough force to go through 12,742 kilometers of solid and liquid. It would need either extreme mass or extreme speed. in the case of extreme mass, at a certain point, the object wouldn't go straight through earth as much ...



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