# Tag Info

102

It does! However it doesn't change the frequency enough to matter. An FM transmission is not a precise frequency. Instead it spans a range of about 100 or 200kHz depending on which country you are in. So your FM radio actually accepts a range of frequencies either side of the central frequency. Let's suppose you're travelling at the maximum speed permitted ...

29

To further add to John Rennie's answer: you don't even need autotuning for a frequency drift of the magnitude John calculates (10Hz): all FM receivers I've ever dealt with (I qualified as an electrical engineer in 1985 and worked a few short years in communications before returning to study) demodulated with a phase locked loop detector, whose job it is to ...

24

Yes, gravitational waves will undergo the same red-shift as any wave that propagates at $c$. There were probably very violent gravitational waves in the very early universe. If those waves hadn't been red-shifted, they'd be ripping us apart right now. If so, could observations of them be used like red-shifted electromagnetic waves from distant sources ...

19

John and Rod already pointed out that the expected frequency shift from driving a car is "small"; I would like to expand a little more on the way FM works. FM = Frequency Modulation. The carrier (nominal center frequency) is being modulated - that is, in order to convey the audio content, the frequency is actually moving around deliberately in order to get ...

12

You do see the Doppler shift of the Earth's motion with respect to the CMB. It imprints a dipole component on the CMB temperature map. The motion of the Earth around the Sun is a modest 30 km/s, but even this doppler shifts inferred temperatures by a factor $\simeq v/c$ and needs to be taken out of the CMB analysis. A larger effect is the motion of the Sun ...

10

Temperature is related to kinetic energy in the rest frame of the fluid/gas. In non-relatvistic kinetic theory the distribution function is $$f(p) \sim \exp\left(-\frac{(\vec{p}-m\vec{u})^2}{2mT}\right)$$ where $\vec{u}$ is the local fluid velocity. The velocity can be found by demanding that the mean momentum in the local rest frame is zero. Then $\vec{u}... 8 There are numerous distance indicators used for within the galaxy. The most common way is by using intrinsic magnitude. By knowing how bright an object would be if we were close, we can determine how far away it is by how dim it is. There are many types of stars where we have a rough idea of how bright they should be due to characteristics of the star: ... 8 Yes, the sound can be reversed. Thanks to JiK, we have this animation (Python source code) of a supersonic jet moving forwards that can illuminate what is going on: The red circle represents the first sound produced by the object, the blue circle the second sound produced by the object and the remaining (black) circles representing the sounds produced ... 7 why do textbooks never mention this? Because in order to travel at supersonic speeds, human beings must be enclosed in a rigid metal tube of some sort. Also, these metal tubes they ride in at those speeds generally tend to be insulated against noise from the outside. As for trying to place some sort of microphone outside said metal tube, the propulsion ... 7 You can derive the relativistic Doppler shift from the Lorentz transformations. Let's start in the frame of the moving rocket, and let's take two events corresponding to nodes in the emitted wave (i.e. 1/$f$). Then in the rocket's frame the two events are (0, 0) and ($\tau$, 0), where$\tau$is the period of the radiated wave. To see what the period of the ... 7 According to Bohr model, the absorption and emission lines should be infinitely narrow, because there is only one discrete value for the energy. There are few mechanism on broadening the line width - natural line width, Lorentz pressure broadening, Doppler broadening, Stark and Zeeman broadening etc. Only the first one isn't described in Bohr theory - it's ... 7 [June 19,2016: thoroughly revised, giving a more detailed, comparative presentation and better references] General case. In relativistic thermodynamics, inverse temperature$\beta^\mu$is a vector field, namely the multipliers of the 4-momentum density in the exponent of the density operator specifying the system in terms of statistical mechanics, using the ... 6 I can't claim any experimental experience in this area (fortunately :-) but I thought it was interesting enough to be worth a bit of Googling. The results suggest there is a difference between shells and bombs. There is an extensive collection of eye witness accounts of WW2 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/categories/, and searching this ... 6 This is a great question, as it is both centrally important to modern astrophysics and cosmology, and it is misunderstood by very many people, including scientists themselves. Now the full, rigorous treatment requires general relativity, which I won't discuss in detail here. However, this is a topic that can be explained somewhat intuitively, so I'll give ... 6 The first image shows an object traveling at Mach 1 ($v=c$). The second one shows the object traveling at some supersonic velocity ($v>c$). For both the cases, the longitudinal pressure waves pile up. Say the observer is standing in the ground and the object is traveling at$c$. The observer can't hear the pitch of sound because, the waves reach him all ... 6 I believe CuriousOne is correct, however it does not make any sense to define the threshold frequency for the photoelectric effect in anything but the rest frame of the metal. From the rest frame of the spaceship, the metal plate is rushing towards it and the apparent threshold frequency is lowered, but an occupant of the spaceship should realise that this ... 6 The answer is yes, the atom does absorb radiation that does not exactly match the transistion frequency. This is due to the Doppler effect that everyone knows from an ambulance with siren driving by. The frequency you hear is higher if the ambulance moves towards you and lower if it drives away from you. It's the same with the atom. If the atom moves (and ... 5 The blackbody spectrum of the sun is the following, given$T=5778 K$. I admit I'm just copying from Wikipedia. $$I(\nu,T) =\frac{ 2 h\nu^{3}}{c^2}\frac{1}{ e^{\frac{h\nu}{kT}}-1}$$ The comic suggests that the reflection from scattering transforms the above spectrum by$1/\lambda^4$(as in, it is multiplied by this). Light is a wave, so$\nu \lambda=c$. ... 5 You can use a reflector with gaps. Then the light from a car will alternate between reflecting and not reflecting at a rate dependent on their velocity towards the reflector. Please excuse my crude diagram: As the car moves right to left, gaps in the reflector will cause it to appear to flash on an off. 5 What you hear in this experiment is the combination of the Doppler effect and the beat. As John Rennie points out, the frequency change due to the Doppler effect would be hardly audible. However, the frequency between the two tuning forks will now be slightly different, which results in a intensity modulation, called the "beat". 5 The word "apparent" means "as observed at a particular point X". Different observers will observe different frequencies depending on their relative velocity to the source. This doesn't change the frequency of the sound that is generated; just the frequency of the sound that arrives at the ear of the observer. 5 No, the frequency will not change. If the wind is blowing at constant speed and the distance between source and observer remains constant, then the time it takes for a sound wave to get from source to observer will be constant. So the time interval between wave peaks (period T) when they are detected by the observer remains equal to the interval between ... 4 I would have to see the words in context, but the description "apparent frequency" seems strange to me. The frequency your ear detects is exactly what the most sophisticated scientific instrument would measure. The Doppler shift is real in that the frequency your ear detects is really the sound frequency in your frame. I would guess "apparent frequency" ... 4 (I'm considering the speakers are emitting some kind of music or something nonperiodic, the situation gets a bit boring if you consider a uniform source) It basically means Alice hears nothing. Atleast, not until Bob crosses (at which time your equation is no longer valid, the$-$in the denominator becomes a$+$). She hears a sonic boom as Bob crosses her, ... 4 I tracked down a spectrum of the sky at an altitude somewhere below 51° and overlaid it on the colors of the spectrum: From this diagram, it appears that the intensity of the light admitted through the atmosphere diminishes significantly before reaching violet. Unless the perceiving retina was overpoweringly tuned to ... 4 The doppler shift causes a shift in wavelength at the origin of the wave (the frequency of the source never changes). This results in a shift in frequency for the observer. In the link below you can see the emission of the wave for a moving source causes the wavelength to be shorter in front and longer behind. The actual source isn't changing in ... 4 Your thoughts are basically right; the essential point is that sound waves travel through a medium at a certain speed,$c_s$, and as a result, there is an asymmetry between the effects due to the velocity$v_o$of the observer relative to the medium and the velocity$v_s\$ of the source relative to the medium, but no such asymmetry exists in the Doppler ...

4

You are right that there are two effects at play here. Firstly, suppose that we turn relativity off --- suppose that we consider our universe to be Newtonian, with a finite speed of light propagation. It would indeed be the case that if an observer A were moving relative to another observer B, and emitting a light signal towards B, then the rate at which ...

4

There are a few other reasons why we think the universe is expanding. Wikipedia lists and explains them far better than I will ever be able to. One thing though, your ruler is not expanding. The intermolecular forces are making sure the distance between molecules stays the same. Empty space is expanding, expanding essentially the distances between weakly ...

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