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I think a short argument would be that the energy is, up to a multiplicative factor, given by $$U\sim P_iE_i=\chi_{ij}\, E_i\, E_j$$ Therefore, $\chi$ is nothing but $$\chi_{ij}=\frac{\partial^2 U}{\partial E_i \partial E_j} $$ and therefore is symmetric.


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Ion drag is associated with low frequency (RF) EM waveforms, and is what causes resistive heating, not dielectric heating. Dielectric heating (e.g. microwaves) relies on dipole rotation.


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This is a good question that I struggled with myself for some time. I believe that the correct answer is the following. The imaginary part of the index of refraction, i.e. $\kappa$, quantifies the dissipation of light through a medium. However, if one wants to quantify the dissipation due to nonretarded electric fields alone, the quantity that quantifies ...


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“[A]n equal and opposite field” is an oxymoron and gibberish. Henceforth I’ll assume that we have a chemical voltage source there. The Coulomb’s law is applicable in the case of a charged body, a body that has a constant electric charge. A chemical voltage source is a completely different situation: there is no pre-defined distribution of charges (as they ...



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