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the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential is called capacitance I.e the ability of system to store charge. You can find more info here.


There's a plain distinction between a reference system (to use a more contemporary designation) and a coordinate system: a coordinate system is a reference system together with an (one-to-one) assignment of a coordinate value ($n$-tuple) to each element. Expressed more formally, a reference system to begin with is constituted by a set of distinguishable, ...


The "system of coordinates" is just a fancy way to describe particular "coordinates", which you said to now what it means, with the focus on the "choices" which were made to choose some way of defining and measuring coordinates and not others. "System of reference" was just a particular phrase used by Einstein once, it is not routinely used, and what he ...


You do not need a unit for force when measuring inertial mass in Newtonian Mechanics. The only things you really need are the Newton's second law and the concepts of inertial frame and acceleration. The way you shall proceed is the following. Take a collection $\{m_i\}$ of (unknown) masses and a spring. Use the spring horizontally to accelerate the masses ...


Let's look at: $$F_g=Gm_{g_1}m_{g_2}/r^2$$ For an object with mass $m_{g_1}$, on the surface of the earth, then: $$F_g=Gm_{g_1}M_E/R_E^2$$ Where $M_E$ is the mass of the Earth and $R_E$ the radius of the Earth. You can now verify that: $$GM_E/R_E^2=g=9.81\:\mathrm{m/s^2}$$ So we could have written the second expression as: $$F_g=m_{g_1}g$$ An object ...


The distance covered by an object in particular direction is called Displacement

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