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Suppose you have a standard spin qubit: spin "up" is $|1\rangle$ and spin "down" is $|0\rangle$ . Your qubit is in some storage location which does not couple the two spin directions to each other or have any different energy, you store $|\psi\rangle = a |0\rangle + b |1\rangle$ in this qubit. ` Now some proton flies by, or a minor fluctuation in the Earth's ...

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