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8

Measuring $w$ is actually what I do for a living. The current best measurements put $w$ at $-1$ but with an uncertainty of $5\%$, so there's a little room for $w \ne -1$ models, but it's not big and getting smaller all the time. Indeed, we'd all be thrilled if, as measurements got more precise, $w \ne -1$ turns out to be the case because the $\Lambda$CDM ...


4

A "left over waste product" is matter, too, and it must be composed of something, of some particles allowed by the laws of physics. So labeling something as "waste" doesn't really answer any question about the identity of dark matter. Moreover, most of antimatter has annihilated with the ordinary matter into photons. In fact, any product of the annihilation ...


2

Dark energy is responsible for the acceleration of the universe at large scale, that is, it causes the second derivative of the cosmic scale factor $a(t)$ to be positive. But a smaller scales we found agglomerates of particles where the effect of the four forces (not only gravity) is much stronger that the repulsive effect of dark energy. A useful analogy ...


0

Most of it would've become radiation- mostly photons and some neutrinos. Some of that can be seen in the cosmic microwave background. The rest would've gone into the kinetic energy of remaining matter particles (i.e., heat). We don't actually know what dark matter is made of, but we do know what the reaction products of matter/anti-matter annihilation are ...


1

The word energy tends to be used in a rather vague way, and typically to mean something exotic. In the context of particle reactions energy either means photons or the kinetic energy of the particles leaving the reaction. For example an electron and anti-electron annihilate to produce two photons. By contrast the annihilation of a proton and anti-proton is ...


6

Is it because the acceleration is too weak? It is too weak with respect to the four forces we measure. The fact that the four known forces are so much stronger means that agglomerates of particles, up to the scale of galaxies are not internally affected, they keep their structure intact, like the famous raisins in the rising bread. It is only at the ...


5

The density of Dark Energy is not very high. In a place with lots of matter, the attractive forces of gravity are greater than the repulsive forces of dark energy. In mostly matter empty space, the repulsive forces of dark energy are much larger than the attractive forces of gravity.


0

Dark energy due to a cosmological constant does not get diluted by metric expansion of space. However, this does not violate energy conservation as the increase in energy will be cancelled by gravitational potential energy. The problem with general relativity is (some would say arguably) not energy conservation, but energy localization: In a rotating frame ...


2

The cosmological constant is a constant energy density per unit volume of space, so as the universe expands this does indeed create energy as it creates new space. In this sense conservation of energy is violated. Actually this is less surprising than you might think. Conservation of energy is linked to a symmery called time shift symmetry by Noether's ...


1

Actually, energy is often not Conserved in general Relativity. For are more in deep explanation see: http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/GR/energy_gr.html But just notice that Dark Energy might not necessarily end up being the cosmological constant, but a new force field, so its behavior might differ from that of an actual cosmological ...


3

Forgive me in advance, this may get overcomplicated. I am going to give you the facts as scaled down as I can but still sufficiently detailed. I think providing you with what we have and allowing you to infer from it is the best way to avoid misrepresenting the answer. Here is the General Relativity equation that describes how gravity interacts with ...


4

I am going to answer the following questions: 1) Does dark energy have gravity? 2) Why does dark energy have constant density during the expansion of the universe? First about the term of dark energy - it is more of a label for many attempts of a solution to the problem of an accelerated expansion of the universe. One of the most promising (or say ...



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