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The luminosity of the Galaxy is currently estimated to be around $5\times10^{36}$ W and thus an integrated "mass loss" in the form of radiation of of order $10^{-3} M_{\odot}$/yr. But how much radiation is present in the Galaxy? An order of magnitude estimate could be that the Galaxy (including the dark matter) is of order 100,000 light years in radius and ...


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We don't really know what dark energy is, but the default description is that it's not really dynamical. It can't flow or orbit. It's just a fixed built-in energy that is possessed by every cubic centimeter of space. On a more technical level, the simplest way to accomodate dark energy in the Einstein field equations is by adding a cosmological constant ...


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Which scientists have called dark matter and dark energy forces? Dark matter is a form of matter that doesn't feel any force other than gravity (so far as we have observed). It's true that dark matter bends light because it has mass and it makes up about $5/6$ of all the mass in the universe. The gravity from this mass is what bends light through ...



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