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according to the astrophysical observations which shows for example: much more bending expected in lights directions due to the gravity of the stars and galaxies we know. it means we know there are four example 2 galaxies which can bend the light which come from a third and farther galaxy. and the bending to the light due to these 2 galaxies should be X. but ...


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The accelerated expansion of the Universe is an effect of repulsing forces BY DEFINITION. The nickname of the reason of these forces is "dark energy". The problem is that Einstein's $\Lambda$ term is very simple addition to equations. It could be added even if Einstein didn't want to make Universe static. So it is a great possibility, that Einstein didn't ...


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The simplified model of the universe used in discussions like this is the FLRW metric. From the tone of your question I'm guessing that you're not looking for a detailed mathemtical treatment, so let me just pull out the equation that answers your question. This is one of the two Friedmann equations: $$ \frac{\ddot{a}}{a} = -A\rho + B\Lambda \tag{1} $$ ...


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The inflaton certainly interacts with SM fields. During inflation, the energy density of the Universe is dominated by the potential energy of the infaton and the Universe cools. At the end of inflation, the inflaton should decay to ordinary particles (electrons, photons etc.) in a process known as reheating. After reheating, the big bang begins in earnest. ...


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The luminosity of the Galaxy is currently estimated to be around $5\times10^{36}$ W and thus an integrated "mass loss" in the form of radiation of of order $10^{-3} M_{\odot}$/yr. But how much radiation is present in the Galaxy? An order of magnitude estimate could be that the Galaxy (including the dark matter) is of order 100,000 light years in radius and ...



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