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The resistivity of any material is related to the mobility of the charge carriers within it by: $$ \rho = \frac{1}{ne\mu} $$ where $\mu$ is the mobility, $e$ is the electronic charge and $n$ is the number density of charge carriers. I've deliberately used the term charge carriers rather than electrons because in semiconductors like diodes the carriers can ...


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You will create the same amount of gas as at the surface but it will be under much more pressure at 1000m. This means it will displace less volume and therefore create less buoyancy. You will need to calculate the volume of the gas at the depth you want. Edit: Rough estimate using ideal gas law, you would need 100X as much gas.


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There is an ambiguity. Although I did not understand your analysis of the problem completely, charge carriers certainly can run against the (averaged) electric force due to difference in available bands and other particle statistics effects. The gauge freedom is irrelevant. There are two cases for the “ubiquity”. First, these non-Maxwellian deviations ...


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I'm leaving an answer because the following intuition needs some proper debunking: Since the E field inside a "perfect" conductor is zero, do the electrons(the current) flow only on the outer surface? The logic is perfectly clear, and applied totally incorrectly in this case. I think most people would start with this approach, but more careful ...


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A simplified picture for DC circuits is as follows: A charge develops at the surface of the wire, having a gradient along the length of the wire. This surface charge distribution causes an electric field within the wire, pointing along the wire, and having a uniform cross section. This field accelerates the charge carriers in the bulk of the wire. The ...



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