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Per Neil deGrasse's explanation of the Hawking effect, the radiation that leaves the black hole via this effect is indeed the of the matter that previously fell in.


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In the standard model of cosmology, we say that the universe we live in is an FRW-universe. The FRW part just refers to the initials of the guys who first wrote down the description. The equation that describes such a universe is: $$ds^2=a(t)^2\left[-d\tau^2+d\vec x^2\right]$$ Note: this is for a flat, homogeneous, isotropic FRW-universe. In the above ...


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You are perfectly right: neutrinos hold the promise of providing a window that gives us views much deeper into the big bang than the window conventionally provided by photons. The Hubble Space Telescope gives us snapshots of galaxies in a universe that is only 600 million years old. Although this feat is brought to the wider public as big news, the Hubble ...


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Detecting cosmic neutrino background (~1.95K) is extremely difficult (compared with cosmic microwave background) and never performed directly so far. That's because neutrinos interacts with matter very weakly, unlike photons. We have to build very large detectors. (But if they behave like photons we can't use them to observe early universe.) I also found ...


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The above data is the is the anisotropy of temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) as measured by NASA U2 airplanes in the 1970s. The anisotropy is due to the redshift and blueshift of the Earth moving 300 kilometers per second or 1,080,000 kilometers per hour relative to the frame of the CMB, in the direction of the + at the center of the ...


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"I presumed the source of this energy was not coming from the conversion of other types of energy to dark energy, so it must violate conservation." This is where you go wrong. The positive dark energy is balanced by the negative energy in the gravitational field. As a volume of space expands more dark energy is created in the volume but this is balanced by ...


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It is not necessary to assume that the universe has walls in order for the matter content of the universe to have nonzero pressure. The standard assumption is that the matter/radiation content of the universe is infinite, but at a finite volume density. Also note that there could be some sort of "end of matter" at some radius beyond the cosmological ...


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There are the walls of the universe, at finite distance from here. But we cannot reach them because of length contraction: the closer we to the wall the more we contracted radially. It is the cosmic horizon. For eternal de Sitter (expanding) universe cosmic horizon is just de Sitter event horizon. Any particle approaching the horizon looses its speed due to ...


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What do you mean with "quite differently"? The answer to your first question - does this not mean that the whole universe must be a mess of entanglements would be "yes", that's what it means. But, it seems that entangled particles cannot be used to transmit information without also having a classical information channel available, which is bound by ...


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This is a great question. I feel it necessary to point out the level of study and understanding that go behind asking this question. Well done! Here's the way I understand it. You analysis is flawless; in a radiation dominated universe, $a\propto\sqrt t$. That said, it is not correct to interpret this as the photons exerting some sort of pressure that ...


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I read this question but I didn't understand the physics equations used in the answer. Let me offer a simplified explanation. The origional Big Bang cosmology asserts that the universe is expanding, which if true means that the proper distance $D$ between any 2 points is increasing. Since you can think of this expansion as "space itself expanding," then ...


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The size of the universe is given by a scale factor, normally written as $a(t)$, that is a function of time and is calculated by solving Einstein's equation for an isotropic homogeneous universe. Once we've calculated $a(t)$ we can differentiate it wrt time to get $\dot{a}(t)$ and use this to calculate the recession velocities. The scale factor is a ...


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1 - It is false! If $E = mc^{2}$ is true only for an object that isn’t moving, the mass never changes (is a "Lorentz invariant"). 2 - Can you rephrase it, please? 3 - Energy and mass are not at all the same thing; an object’s energy can change when its motion changes, but its mass remains the same. 4 - In Special Relativity, time can be variable, its ...


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I think, you mix two or even three kinds of redshift effects. First, the classical Doppler shift due to which light emitted from a moving object is shifted to the red or blue. This is dependent on relative movement of sender and receiver only. For transverse motion we still get a redshift (see Wikipedia URL below), but it is very small for low speeds. ...


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From the paper itself: Gravitational lensing of the CMB’s light by large scale structure at relatively late times produces small deflections of the primordial pattern, converting a small portion of E-mode power into B-modes. The lensing B-mode spectrum is similar to a smoothed version of the E-mode spectrum but a factor ~100 lower in power, ...


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Dark matter is generally not associated with a total lack of visible matter. From formation simulations we predict that luminous matter is really only clumped together because dark matter was there already (gross simplification, but sorta descriptive). In addition, although the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter don't exactly match (ie bullet ...


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We have, at this time, no tools capable of detecting neutrinos at the very low energies of the cosmic neutrino background, and if such tools existed they would have to contend with numerous backgrounds making the experiment ferociously difficult.


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There's essentially only one type of redshift - the special-relativistic Doppler shift, properly adapted to the rules of general relativity. In curved space-time, there's no global notion of relative velocities, and we need to parallel transport the emitter's velocity vector to the observer along the light path. In addition to this abstract notion of ...


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I am not exactly sure which low energy cutoff you refer to; however, there is a low-energy cutoff for photons that I am aware of. Photons with energies on the order of $H_0\sim10^{-33}\text{eV}$ would be super-horizon modes. That is, their wavelengths would be on the order of the Hubble radius, $H_0^{-1}=14.6~Gly$. Larger than this would mean that the ...


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There is a very nice paper exactly on this topic, where the expressions describing the fit curves are derived: http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9906447v1 If you have a look at the final expression (formula (6.5) on page 8), you will agree, that the relation between $\Omega_\Lambda$ and the luminosity is hard to describe by words. However, you can try to think ...


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You might find the following paper useful: http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0310808v2 In the figure 2 on page 7 you see the plots of different $v(z)$ relations, among them the classical and the special relativistic ones that you have used in your calculations. You can see that the classical $v(z)$ relation intersects the $v=1c$ line for some redshift $z$, this ...


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I don't have enough reputation to leave this as a comment, but this Youtube video by Sean Carroll answers your question very well. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwdY7Eqyguo


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First, in the most common model of dark energy, $\Lambda$CDM, dark energy is a constant energy density, which means that the "energy" from dark energy does increase as the universe expands. Second, the law of conservation of Energy is only valid in a static universe. Because our universe is expanding, it is no longer the same at every moment of time and so ...


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The paper suggested by Trimok seems to answer your question. The paper gives an entropy for the observable universe of: \begin{equation} S_{obs U}= 3.1×10^{104} k \approx 10^{104}bits \end{equation} where $k$ is the Boltzmann constant and $S_{obs}$ is the entropy. However I would like to answer your two questions with a back of the envelope calculation. ...


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Reheating is the decaying of the inflaton into the particles that we are currently observing. In the context of quantum field theory this happens simply because there is a coupling of the inflaton field to either the Standard Model (and possibly other, yet unobserved, particles) directly, or to a field $\chi$ which then couples to the Standard Model and ...


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Energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared, and mass equals energy divided by the speed of light squared. What goes up, must come down. Nothing can escape a black hole. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes form. All things in an enclosed system gain entropy, slow down, ...


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The simplest idea is that the collapse of the previous universe caused the big bang. I imagine it as black holes smashing into each other at great speed, immediately causing a nuclear reaction. There are some unproven theories that need to be adjusted, such as the idea that dark energy density remains constant as space expands. Black hole radiation has ...


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There are several scenarios that point out cyclic cosmologies. The first one is called Matter bounce cosmology which is based on the idea that that the universe originated from a cosmological bounce in which quantum fluctuations develop into a scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations. The bounce is realized beyond Einstein's General Relativity and ...


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so what if a light beam was pointed somewhere behind the event horizon to the outside, Inside the horizon, the curvature of spacetime is such that the direction "to the outside" is the past time direction. In other words, to go 'back' towards the horizon is as impossible as it is to go 'back' in time. Indeed, for the same reason that we inexorably ...


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Your question cannot be answered because ultimately it depends on experiment. In general relativity the gravitational constant, $G$, is assumed constant and the geometry of spacetime is derived on this basis. At the moment observation suggests the metric we obtain using GR is a good description of the universe (provided you believe in dark energy), so the ...


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Einstein once called the cosmological constant his biggest blunder, which he said when he was told by someone else the universe was expanding, and he then revised his theory, based on what little was known back then. He came up with it originally to explain a static, non-expanding universe, which was accepted until observations of redshift by Hubble. Energy ...


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No, it's not correct. There are many things outside the visible horizon that affect us. For example, the quantum vacuum, the void with nothing in it that causes dark energy to be sucked outward into it. Gravity doesn't end at the horizon, the gravity of the entire universe has an effect on us, slowing the expansion. Also, there are many things we can't ...


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The most elegant way I've seen to describe this is described in the paper The river model of black holes. If we write the Schwarzschild metric in Gullstrand-Painlevé coordinates we get (in units where $c = G = 1$): $$ ds^2 = -dt_{ff}^2 + \left(dr + \beta dt_{ff} \right)^2 + r^2 d\Omega^2 $$ where: $$ \beta = \frac{2M}{r} $$ This looks like the Minkowski ...


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General relativity describes gravity as the curvature of space-time. So to understand how black holes work, we must have a basic idea of how space-time works. In regular 3D space, the length $\Delta s$ between two points is $\Delta s^2 = \Delta x^2 + \Delta y^2 + \Delta z^2$. This is just the pythagorean theorem applied in 3D. But in space-time, where we ...


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As you said, since nothing can go out from the event horizon, if light is sent from within the event horizon it does not escape. However, it is not true, that light will slow down and go back. In fact, inside the event horizon all accessible paths point towards the center of the Black Hole. This means, that, once inside a Black Hole, you will be pushed ...


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We don't know how the relationship between gravity and dark energy changes over time as gravity decreases (from the rest of the universe), because one cancels out the other to a degree we don't know. It is not reasonable to assume that as the universe expands more strings of dark energy magically appear to keep the density constant. Einstein originally ...


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The dividing line meets at $(\Omega_m,\Omega_\Lambda)=(0,1)$. From the Friedmann equations, it follows that the scale factor $a(t)$ satisfies the relation $$ \frac{\dot{a}^2}{H_0^2} = \Omega_m a^{-1} + (1 - \Omega_m - \Omega_\Lambda) + \Omega_\Lambda a^2. $$ The universe has no big bang singularity if the above expression is negative (or zero) for some ...


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There's a difference between curvature of spacetime and curvature of space. Extrapolating from what we can see around us and assuming the cosmological constant lives up to its name, spacetime will eventually approach curved de Sitter geometry, in contrast to flat Minkowski geometry or anti-de Sitter geometry of opposite curvature. This is something of an ...


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I think this is an example,universe is rotating about its own central axis.if this is the case,take a curve beaker and a flat plate with some water in them.First shake clockwise the curved beaker and then flat plate.In which,beaker or plate did the circular motion was seen about its center?I guess curved one.So,our universe is curved.


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There is a central point, the point that is the opposite to the expansion of the sphere. We can't see it, but I would assume that in a similar way to how when large stars go supernova they leave behind a black hole, and how there are black holes in the middle of galaxies, there would probably be a black hole in the centre. We would never see it, because ...


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What muddies the waters a bit are that when I tried to search for the borde-guth thing, the first result was a Christian site, and of course when it was discovered that the universe was expanding, the big bang was taken by many Christian scientists as the creation of the universe by God, and that is still the most likely explanation for why the universe ...


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This is similar to the idea that if the universe was infinite in size and infinitely old, the sky would be as bright as the sun, since every point in the sky would end on a star, somewhere in the infinite universe. Since this is not the case, it led people to conclude that the universe is either finite in size or age. Similarly, even if the universe was ...


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It is only in the absence of dark energy that the correspondence between geometrical curvature and the ultimate fate of the universe is as straightforward as you describe. Measurements (primarily of the cosmic microwave background) indicate that our universe is flat or very nearly so, which should be interpreted geometrically (i.e. in terms of the sum of ...


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The Milky Way is receding from the members of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster. The Hydra cluster has a red shift of 0.0548. The Centaurus cluster has a red shift of 0.0114. The Norma cluster has a red shift of 0.0157. The local group is and will continue moving away from the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster.


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Wayne Hu (professor, Univ. Chicago) has a CMB website that seems to answer this question. It is stated that "The one-to-one mapping between wavenumber and multipole moment described in [a previous section] is only approximately true and comes from the fact that the spherical Bessel function is strongly peaked at $kD \approx l$" where $l$ is the ...


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The BICEP2 data suggests that inflation happened, and in particular the data is compatible with chaotic inflation. Lubos Motl has a blog post on this here, and a quick Google found many related articles like this one. Chaotic inflation (almost?) invariably results in multiple causally disconnected regions. One of these would constitute our universe, and the ...


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Consider the (1,1)-tensor $T^{\mu}_{\phantom{\mu}\nu}=g^{\mu\lambda}T_{\lambda\nu}=\text{diag}(\rho, -P/c^2, -P/c^2, -P/c^2)$. Then $$ \nabla_\mu T^{\mu}_{\phantom{\mu}\nu} = \partial_\mu T^{\mu}_{\phantom{\mu}\nu} + \Gamma^{\mu}_{\mu\lambda}T^\lambda_{\phantom{\mu}\nu} - \Gamma^{\lambda}_{\mu\nu}T^\mu_{\phantom{\mu}\lambda} = 0. $$ For $\nu=0$, we find $$ ...


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Space itself was once concentrated in an infinitesimally small point. During the Bang of the Big Bang all distances between points got bigger. If you try to measure the expansion of the universe from any point you will draw the conclusion that the expansion started from that point. It seems that the expansion happened everywhere, and nowhere at the same ...


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Remember, the Big Bang theory is just that- a theory. I predict astrophysicists will soon discover galaxies 15,20,25, billion years old. Then what?



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