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The hubble relation is: $$v = H d$$ where $v$ is the velocity of the galaxy relative to the Milky way, and $d$ is the distance of the galaxy relative to the milky way. The velocity is measured using redshift. The distance is measured through a complicated series of standard candles, along with the relationship $I = \frac{I_{0}}{4\pi r^{2}}$. If you ...


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Inflation, separation of gravity from other forces, separation of strong from electroweak force, and electroweak symmetry breaking, are all different events. It's easiest to start by describing the different sorts of fields involved. Quantum fields get classified by their "spin", which describes the angular momentum states that field quanta (particles) can ...



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