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To start with, the cosmological constant, vacuum energy, and dark energy are mostly used interchangeably in cosmology. This is because the cosmological constant is observationally indistinguishable from vacuum energy by the Einstein field equations. The term "dark energy" was, as far as I am aware, introduced when the expansion of the universe was observed ...


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Whether the dark energy is constant or not will ultimately be determined by experiment. At the moment there is no evidence that the dark energy is changing, but the experimental errors are still quite large so a change is not ruled out. There are lots of papers on this subject, but as yet no firm conclusions. It is important to be clear that dark energy ...



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