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The knee is believed to be due to one of the following reasons: 1) the reduced efficiency of the galactic magnetic field to confine the cosmic ray particles with energies above the knee within galaxy, 2) the knee corresponds to the maximum energy that protons can have under diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants, 3) the contribution from a ...


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Cosmic rays have a de Broglie wavelength. The de Broglie wavelength is redshifted by the expansion of space in the same way that the wavelength of light is redshifted. Another way of saying this is that their peculiar momenta with respect to a co-moving local volume decrease as the inverse of the scale factor. This means that the energies of any cosmic rays ...


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The integrated local interstellar cosmic ray energy density is claimed by Webber (1998) to be about 1.8 ev/cm$^3$. The energy density of dark matter (mostly rest mass energy) in the solar system is thought to be around $0.43\pm0.1$ GeV/cm$^{3}$ (Salucci et al. 2010). Both numbers likely have quite big error bars, but as you can see, there is an 8-9 orders ...



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