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The conceptual problem here is that of EMF, $\mathcal{E}$ vs Electric Potential, V. They aren't really the same thing despite being measured in the same units. For instance the EMF is caused by an external agent that isn't the conservative electrostatic field, like say a chemical reaction in a battery or a solar cell. Work is done to cause a charge ...

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This was answered well in the comments but I'll write it up as a proper answer. There are two main questions here: Why is there an asymmetry between matter and antimatter? given that there's an asymmetry, why did matter win out? The second question is answered rather easily. The Big Bang produced more of one of the two types and everything, from ...

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It's a matter of convention. The complete wave function must describe a wave that propagates in the correct direction. Any function of the form $f(kz - \omega t) = F(z - vt)$ describes a wave propagating to the right. For a plane wave, that could be $\exp{(i(kz - \omega t))}$ or $\exp{ (-i(kz - \omega t))}$. An author is free to choose whichever he or ...

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The wavevector does not always point to the direction of propagation. Read this from wikipedia to understand it better. The wavevector is basically parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave if the medium is isotropic (i.e uniform in every direction).

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There is no particular way of describing the direction of dipole rather it is hypothetic.But one should know the fact that if lenth is taken as 2L,means it has a specific origion(No matter for ease it is taken).Now as possible,draw a graph of dipole and its axial line co-insided with the X-axis.Therefore we will find the -ve charge takes the position on left ...

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