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The phenomenon of convective heat transfer occurs as a result of a combination of fluid deformation (movement) and conduction within the moving fluid. The fluid deformation physically brings hotter fluid into contact with cooler fluid to enhance the rate of conductive heat transfer between these regions. In many cases, this occurs in close vicinity to a ...


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The gas in a star is emitting light by blackbody radiation at the same rate as it's absorbing emitted radiation so it's temperature varies extremely slowly with time. The blackbody radiation increases the rate of diffusion of heat in a star. See Does nature really follow the heat equation?. That diffusion of heat is what people call photon random walk. No ...


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You don't have convection in a solid, you need a liquid or gas where hotter, less dense portions can rise above the colder, denser ones. With thick walls, the answer is the same What do you consider a "significant" temperature gradient? The gradient is the driving force behind heat conduction, so you certainly can't ignore it. Modeling thick walls: you ...



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