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I think the above picture with captioning below answers the question best, at least for me. Basically the green quark emits a green-antiblue gluon, turning it blue. This gluon is absorbed by the blue gluon, and it changes from blue to green, restoring the color symmetry and keeping the Baryon overall colorless. And it happens so fast that no overall Baryon ...

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No, not at all! The color of the quarks has no effect whatsoever. If you're studied intro physics, you know that a potential $V(x)$ is identical in every way to a potential $V(x) + V_0$ for some constant $V_0$. Now consider two hydrogen atoms, where I've set the potential at infinity to be $3 \text{ V}$ for one of them and $4 \text{ V}$ for the other. ...

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Hadrons come in 2 families: baryons and mesons. Both of them consist from colourless combinations of quarks. Mesons contain pairs of quarks of colour-anticolour and hadrons contain 3 quarks of different colours making them white in analogy with regular colour perception. You are right that quark can change its colour by interaction with gluons, but the ...

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If you take an electron and a proton there is a strong electromagnetic force between them because the electron has a charge of $-e$ and the proton has a charge of $+e$. However suppose you combine the electron and proton into a hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom has a net charge of zero so there is no strong electromagnetic force between two hydrogen atoms. ...

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This is related to the so-called "colour charge" carried by particles involved in strong interaction. Although at first it was proposed to allow same quarks exist inside the baryons (despite Pauli exclusion principle), it is also used to describe the ability of hadrons to be free of confinement — only colourless particles (or white) can be free. This is not ...

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