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You miss the main factor: Moon/Sun are the triggers, but tidal wave is at first the mechanical response of the water body constrained by the topography of the floor and coasts. That's why some regions in the world can have huge tides, and some others have 1 or 3 high tide a day instead of 2. Sort of vibrating modes. I don't see how evaporation and rain ...

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You need to collect some data to answer this question. Heat pumps can provide more heat to a building than the electricity they use. Whether yours does is something that needs to be measured. Real world efficiencies are often different from lab efficiencies. The radiator coils can get dusty and be installed in places with poor air flow, for example. You ...

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$CO_2$: Without greenhouse gases, Earth would be about 30 degrees colder. Everyone sensible agrees that $CO_2$ contributes to this, but also that it only directly causes part of the warming. Water vapor is the other important greenhouse gas. There are feedback relationships between temperature, $CO_2$ levels, and water vapor levels, e.g. if the world gets ...

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The reflectivity of the atmosphere, and of the surface itself, is strongly wavelength-sensitive. So while some percentage of any given wavelength is reflected -- and some percentage is absorbed rather than transmitted, the variation over wavelength is what leads to the somewhat misleading statement you refer to. Here's an example of atmospheric absorption, ...

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It does. Consider this: you can see the Earth from space. Therefore, not just infrared light gets reflected but also light on the visible spectrum. Here's a graph (by NASA) of various planet's radio emissions. The ways that Earth can release radio waves is a bit limited. Because of that, it is safe to assume that at least some come from the Sun.

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