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In this case, gravity is still an external force. In a zero-g environment, the mouse would also begin to move around the inside of the wheel, opposite the rotation it causes in the wheel, which would keep the angular momentum at zero. This would happen because the only way for the mouse to exert a force on the wheel and rotate it is for it to push itself in ...


As demonstrated in this paper, the trajectory can never maximise the action but can in fact lie on a saddle point in cases where the potential has the appropriate spatial variation (at least partially repulsive) and where the final state is taken sufficiently far 'downstream' (beyond what these authors call the 'kinetic focus').


It's not taking partial derivatives with respect to an observed particle's position, but rather the space of all possible positions of that particle. Think of the potential energy as being defined prior to the particle having an actual path. Really, at heart, these things are defined on a phase space not on ordinary physical space.


In today's understanding of Nature, there is nothing completely isolated. So technically there will always be interaction with the surrounding, at least from a quantum physical perspective. Here vacuum is not empty i.e. it does allow for electromagnetic interaction and there will be heat loss due to these vacuum effects. Furthermore also the other concepts ...


When there is a pressure difference across a rope (or a "uniform load" of some kind) then the tension in the rope has to be such that the net force perpendicular to the rope exactly cancels the force. For this, the rope needs to be bent, and the combination of the radius of curvature and the tension gives you the net force according to this diagram (from the ...


In mechanics, a mass $m$ experiences a force $\textbf{F}$ along some path $C$. The work done on the mass is given by $$ W = \int_C \textbf{F} \cdot d\textbf{r},$$ such that the energy of the mass increases by $W$. Positive work corresponds to energy being added to the system in question (which is inevitably taken from the surroundings). Edit: To answer ...


First, I'm going to define some notation. I prefer the direct notation of modern continuum mechanics as presented in this book by Gurtin et al., so I won't be carrying around the indices that you use. Lastly, the following holds for small deformation, rate-independent plasticity with isotropic hardening. $\mathbf{T}$ = Cauchy stress tensor $\mathbf{T}_0 = ...

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