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What is movement? In classical point particle mechanics let us take an inertial reference frame and an apparatus that allows us to measure the time (whatever that means). Let us also take a test point particle of inertial mass $m$. When the clock is at, say, $t_0$ we measure the position of the point particle with a ruler; say that is $x_0$. We repeat the ...

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$x_{ps}=PS-l$ and $x_{qs}=QS-l$ not the way you had it. The stretched length of the strings is $l$, so if the stretched length is $PS$ then the extension has to be $PS-l$.

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My apologies for a short answer, but it really depends on many factors I don't know about, such as virtually anything that may have disturbed the airflow along the fuselage. These extracts are based a pdf file from the University of Leipzig but unfortunately I can't get my tablet to copy the url. My basic point is that, despite the direction of the ...

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The problem is that the motion of your pendulum is no longer "simple harmonic motion". And the expression for potential energy (essentially height above instantaneous equilibrium position) and kinetic energy (due to velocity of rod) have to change - because the velocity of the bob is now the velocity due to angular motion PLUS the velocity of the support ...

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Consider a bead sliding on a thin, rigid rod in the $x$-direction. An example of virtual infinitesimal displacement that is inconsistent with the constraints is $$\delta \mathbf r = (0, \delta y, 0), \qquad \delta y \neq 0$$ because this displacement represents the bead moving away from the rod.

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