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3

No, this is not possible at least in the way you are implying. Chemical potential as temperature are abstractions that apply to large systems as a whole, because they depend on equilibrium conditions, or in other words, they rely on fluctuations being much smaller than average values. You don't measure temperature directly either, once your thermometer is ...


2

You can think of the chemical potential as the amount of free energy needed to add one additional particle to the system. Because the ground state of a BEC is degenerate and can hold an infinite number of particles, there's no energy cost to add another particle to that state. So, $\mu = 0$.


4

To determine the upper limit on chemical potential for a gas of $\mathcal N$ bosons, look at the form of the Bose distribution in the grand canonical ensemble with $\langle N \rangle = \mathcal N$. When using the GCE, it's easiest to work at chemical potential $\mu$ and to then choose $\mu(\mathcal N)$ so that $\langle N\rangle(\mu)=\mathcal N$. Each state ...


1

From these Cornell lecture notes: Usually we will include the term −μN into the definition of the Hamiltonian Ĥ, so that expressions for the thermal average in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles are formally identical.



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