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As i understand, according to standard model forces are just mediating particles used to form heavy particles, atoms, molecules and other material from fundamental particles like quarks and leptons. Force particles alone do not constitute any form of matter. To over knowledge of science these forces consistent everywhere (where there is matter) in the ...

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Even in an intrinsic material, $\tau$ is different for electrons and holes. This is because in the equation for $\mu$, the value of $\tau$ is not lifetime but rather the average time between scattering events. Since holes aren’t an actual particle, the movement of holes is really the movement of electrons in the valence band. Because there are many more ...

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The concentration of donors comes into first formula as Fermi level depends on donor concentration(see Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices page 123). For usual doped semiconductors at room temperature all donor electrons are excited, that is the region where n is not dependent on T and you get third formula. I am not sure whether the model predicts ...

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