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Chemistry as we know it would not exist if electrons were Bosons, because many of the details of the chemical "bonding" of atoms are strongly affected by the requirement that the overall wavefunction of all the electrons involved be anti-symmetric. This anti-symmetrization principle (which is the basis of the "Pauli Exclusion Principle") along with the fact ...


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It seems to be referring to the fact that bosons don't have to obey the Pauli exclusion principle, whereas fermions do. With fermionic electrons, only one can occupy each atomic energy state at a time, so as you add more electrons, they have to form sequential shells, which makes different atoms behave differently chemically. If electrons were bosons, then ...


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The statement is not true. Counter example: quantum spin ice or U(1) spin liquid. In gapless spin liquid phase, the boson (spin excitations) are emergent U(1) photons in the deconfined phase, which are gapless but not condensed.


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I met the author of that paper today. He said it's more of an empirical observation rather than a statement based on solid arguments. He asked for a counterexample, which I don't have. Please post it here once you got one.


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The short, simple, and intuitive explanation is that in a superconductor state, electrons are paired (BCS case) because there is an effective interaction between them. To destroy such a pair and produce free electrons you need to invest a minimum of energy, which is this energy gap $\Delta$. This produces an excitation (2 free electrons), remember that SC ...



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