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It is meaningless to talk about the precise number of virtual particles corresponding to the interaction of a certain particle with other particles. It is simply not well-defined, neither in the mathematical framework of the path integral formalism of quantum field theory, nor if one uses them as a heuristic picture of reality. Virtual particles appear in a ...


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For massless gauge bosons the only meaningful way to transform under parity is like polar vectors since they have to transform as $i\partial_\mu$ in the covariant derivative. For massive gauge boson, one in principle doesn't have this constraint, although one could assign a parity as for massless vectors assuming the mass comes from spontaneous symmetry ...


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It does not mediate flavor changing because the couplings in the gauge basis are of the form $ c_L Z_\mu \bar{\psi}^i_L \gamma^\mu \psi^i_L$ and $c_R Z_\mu \bar{\psi}^i_R \gamma^\mu \psi^i_R$ with $i$ flavor index and $c_{L,R}$ flavor independent by gauge invariance (that is, $c_L$ and $c_R$ are proportional to the identity in flavor space). In this basis ...



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