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Let's just focus on the top vertex. First, draw an arrow pointing down. Then, you can determine from charge conservation (or looking for the relevant term in the lagrangian) that the particle must be $W^+$. Because $(W^+)^\ast=W^-$, this vertex has precisely the same value if you reverse that arrow and replace the $W^+$ with a $W^-$. Here I am just using ...


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It is meaningless to talk about the precise number of virtual particles corresponding to the interaction of a certain particle with other particles. It is simply not well-defined, neither in the mathematical framework of the path integral formalism of quantum field theory, nor if one uses them as a heuristic picture of reality. Virtual particles appear in a ...



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