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Well, in the NJL model you get rid of the gluon. They are considered to be frozen in the low energy limit where you are working because the mass is higher than the energy. Thus you are only working with quarks, and you consider interaction between quarks via effective coupling constants. But in the standard model, gluons (seem to) acquire an effective mass ...


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It is not possible to get a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons in three-dimensional equilibrium. Since the photons have no mass gap and no chemical potential, they can just be absorbed by the walls. In this example, however, the experimenters used a gas that was out of equilibrium, with different effective temperatures for the motion in different ...


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An ensemble of interacting particles will, over time, develop entanglement between widely separated parts*, so this is similar to asking whether an interacting system can still be a BEC. The short answer is yes, but a subtlety is that various authors define BEC in slightly different ways. One way of defining BEC, as I mention in a recent answer, is the ...



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