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5

The 1st order density matrix, $$ \rho({\bf x}, {\bf x'}) = \langle \hat\psi^\dagger({\bf x'})\hat\psi({\bf x}) \rangle $$ is a Hermitian operator since $\rho({\bf x}, {\bf x'}) = \rho^*({\bf x'}, {\bf x})$ and its diagonal entries, $$ \rho({\bf x}, {\bf x}) = \langle \hat\psi^\dagger({\bf x})\hat\psi({\bf x}) \rangle = n({\bf x}) $$ give the number density ...


4

To determine the upper limit on chemical potential for a gas of $\mathcal N$ bosons, look at the form of the Bose distribution in the grand canonical ensemble with $\langle N \rangle = \mathcal N$. When using the GCE, it's easiest to work at chemical potential $\mu$ and to then choose $\mu(\mathcal N)$ so that $\langle N\rangle(\mu)=\mathcal N$. Each state ...


2

You can think of the chemical potential as the amount of free energy needed to add one additional particle to the system. Because the ground state of a BEC is degenerate and can hold an infinite number of particles, there's no energy cost to add another particle to that state. So, $\mu = 0$.


2

If operators $a_j$, $a^\dagger_j$ correspond to the system's orthonormal natural orbitals $\phi_j({\bf x})$, such that $$ \int{d{\bf x}\; \phi^*_j({\bf x})\phi_k({\bf x})} = \delta_{jk}, \;\;\;\sum_j{\phi^*_j({\bf x})\phi_j({\bf x'})} = \delta({\bf x} - {\bf x'})\\ \hat\psi({\bf x}) = \sum_j{\phi_j({\bf x})\;a_j},\;\;\; a_j = \int{d{\bf x} \;\phi^*_j({\bf ...



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