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I'm not sure what your physics background is. The phenomenon you describe comes from the equation of continuity. This can be concisely mathematically expressed as $$ \oint \left( {\bf J} + \epsilon_0 \frac{\partial {\bf E}}{\partial t} \right) \cdot d{\bf S} = 0 $$ In this equation ${\bf J}$ is an electrical current density (current per unit area) and ...


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In non-equilibrium stat mech, I would recommend Gavin Crooks' "Entropy production fluctuation theorem and the nonequilibrium work relation for free energy differences", in which he proves his famous theorem, and the related experimental paper by Carlos Bustamante's group "Verification of the Crooks fluctuation theorem and recovery of RNA folding free ...


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The much more important PHYSICS question is, where can life NOT exist? The answer to that is trivial: it can not exist in thermodynamic equilibrium. Life is defined by perpetual change, thermodynamic equilibrium is the case of no change, at all. Beyond that it is scientifically prudent not to rule out ANY non-equilibrium environment, at all, until sufficient ...


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As stated by Kyle Kanos, we only have statistics from one planet. You make the point that there may be undiscovered organisms that can survive without water. Based on our current knowledge, every life form we know of so far has had its components suspended in an aqueous environment. While it is possible there is another form of life that does not require ...



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