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The technique is to sight in on known frequencies of sources in the Milky Way and other galaxies. Any signal bearing the multiband set of data is subtracted.


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I don't know if negative pressure (but see my added edit below) , more importantly there is a theory of inflation, and some good evidence for it. It was caused by a yet unknown inflation field, with its parameters somewhat matching what the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements show. [edit added: The field is a quantum field that rolled from a high ...


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First off, let's start with the more common misunderstanding. The Big Bang was not an explosion of any kind. Popular science likes to depict it as an explosion because of the name "Big Bang" and also because it's more visually appealing than what the Big Bang actually was. The actual definition of the Big Bang is a little complicated, but suffice to say it ...


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How can we look into the past? Light has a fixed velocity of almost 300.000 meters per second. Sunlight takes about 8 minutes to reach us. So we see the sun always 8 minutes ago. As the other answer says, stars are much further away and it takes light that much longer to reach us. How do we know how far away the stars are? There are various methods that ...


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Stars are very far away. So light takes a while to get from stars to you. The light arriving now shows you what the stars looked like when the light left. It is like getting a letter from a far away friend. The letter took a few days to arrive. It has news from a few days ago.


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Pocket universes have arisen in different theories. Just to name you two, one is alan Gut's inflationary theory idea that Eternal inflation produces pocket universes with all physically allowed vacua and histories. Another is that from sean carroll, who claims that inside every black hole there is an entirely new universe.


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Infinity is a mathematical concept, as well as the concept of variables describing dimensions. Physics is about observations, either in the laboratory or of the cosmos, which are fitted with mathematical models. It started with the geocentric system, became the heliocentric system and then the realization that the galaxy is composed out of sun like stars, ...


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The FLRW energy equation for the motion of test masses in the universe is $$ \left(\frac{\dot a}{a}\right)^2 = \frac{8\pi G\rho}{3}. $$ the scale factor for space is $a$ and its time derivative is $\dot a$. I derived this from Newtonian dynamics. The density of mass $\rho$ for the case of a quantum vacuum energy level is constant. I now replace this with ...


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Tl,dr: Entropy is the right definition, because it's incredibly useful in the description of statistical and thermodynamic systems. Whether or not it quantifies "disorder" in whatever sense of the word is completely irrelevant - it just so happens that it can be interpreted that way. Entropy is not a measure of disorder. At least not really. Then again, ...


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The noboundary condition means there is no boundary that marks the end of space or time. With respect to time one might think of the lines of longitude on a globe as representing the time direction at different point in a spatial manifold modeled as the lines of latitude. As one looks further to the north, which is the big bang that eventually you look north ...


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Edit: As noticed above in the comment, let's define BBN. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is a process of formation of light nuclei from primordial protons and neutrons in the Early Universe. Standard BBN theory is extremely successful in predicting the abundances of multiple nuclei and is very sensitive to a number of parameters. Let's see how it holds. Below you ...


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Here are some references: Time and chance by david Albert Time's arrow by huw price From eternity to here by sean carroll The direction of time by H. D. Zeh Physical basis of time Asymmetry by paul davies There are many other excellent books or articles about the subject. Especially, in relation to the foundation of statistical mechanics I saw Two ...


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So that narrows it down to some time between 1896 and 1979 The second law was known to Clausius, and trivially implies the knowledge that the entropy in the far past was much less than now. (That is, if one is permitted to apply the notion to the universe as a whole; cf. below.) It seems that Clausius stated explicitly (in 1856) only the extrapolation to ...



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