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The chemical properties of an element are always determined by the atomic number, that is, the number of protons in the nucleus. All carbon atoms have six protons, all iron atoms have 26, etc. It's the atomic number which is featured prominently in the periodic table, for example. Until the neutron was discovered in 1932, this was fine. After the neutron ...


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The most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons. Other isotopes are deuterium with 1 neutron and tritium, with 2 neutrons. Since virtually all (99.98% according to wiki) naturally occurring hydrogen comes in the no neutron isotope, it seems reasonable that books show a schematic of that one when illustrating hydrogen. As a secondary motivation, the one ...


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Okay, so just to be clear I am going to consider processes in which a photon and an atom at some energy level go in, and the photon and atom exchange energy (and momentum) such that a photon with a shifted (either higher or lower) energy comes out, while the atom ends up in a different internal electronic state than it started in. A general diagram looks ...


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These are not easy questions and there is no definite answer for them. There are plenty of cosmological models which we believe to be at least partialy true, and they do adress some of these questions. However, it is difficult to be entirely confident in their validity. I think most of cosmologists believe that there is infinite amount of matter in the ...


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I found the answer I was looking for in Chemistry S.E. As you can see it is not that impossible to have a picture of what you calculate. http://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/51568/what-is-the-reason-why-protons-and-electrons-do-not-collide/51576#51576


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This answer is not rigorous, just an afterthought: Remember that a photon has to be fully absorbed first, it will not absorb and emit simultaneously. This would leave us with an electron that is momentarily in a forbidden energy state. From that state it could emit a photon to jump to what should be its correct (i.e., allowed) energy level. Uncertainty will ...


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I believe if an atom receives too much energy it can be ionized. There are allowed energy levels but above these levels is the region for free electrons. The energy levels there are not quantized and can receive any energy. Photons with higher energy can put the total energy above the allowed energy levels therefore ionizing the atom. Another way to look at ...


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You are unlucky, because the microworld of electrons nuclei, atoms and molecules has been studied with mathematical models for over a hundred years and it is not open to hand waving hypothesis of the type: I would say electrons are very tiny containers of energy, which can contain between a minimum and a maximum of such energy, depending on how much energy ...


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Please read the Laws of atomic gravitational fluctuation to understand how gravity works in the atom. http://www.windsorrealestateinfo.com/Laws-of-Atomic-Gravitational-Fluctuation-Tim-G.-Meloche


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If you see the expression of gravitational force: it has a coefficient, two mass terms and one distance term. Now, G (gravitational constant) ~ 6.6x10-11 SI Units m1 & m2 (suppose mass of an electron) ~ 9.1x10-31 kg r (distance between two electrons) ~ 10-12 m Gives us force in range of 10-47 - 10-46 N which is very very less. And there are other ...


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Before talking about entropy, we need to discuss what possible states an atom can be in. I will start by the most general case that consists in considering a single-atom gas in a 3D box. In that case, the microstate of the atom is described by: The definite linear momentum states $| \textbf{k} \rangle$ of the atom (that are eigenvectors of the hamiltonian) ...


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The entropy of a single atom does not make sense per se, unless you specify the preparation. The entropy of a single isolated atom, fixed at a point, is indeed not defined – the entropy is, after all, a property of an ensemble not of a system. The entropy of an ensemble of isolated atoms prepared at a specific energy, on the other hand, is well defined (this ...



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