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Basically, absorption lines exist because absorbed photon are not re-emitted in the same direction, so dark lines can be observed. There are various reason causing this. For example, the extra energy can be dissipated as phonon in solid or strongly interacting system. Excited states can also emit multiple low frequency photon if there are meta-stable ...


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It depends on the photon energy. Stimulated emission happens when the photon energy matches the energy difference between the metastable and ground state. Excitation happens if the photon energy matches the energy difference between the metastable and some excited state. If you found a system where the metastable to ground and metastable to excited state ...


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I think you've misunderstood what the uncertainty principle tells us. The electrons in an atom do not have a position because they are delocalised over the whole atom. So two atoms can't behave differently because their electrons are in different positions - all atoms of the same element/isotope have thir electrons delocalised in an identical way. We can ...


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All bound states (groups that are not decaying away, they're more "orbiting" in some way) of nuclei and electrons may be written as a (linear combination of) energy eigenstates – eigenstates of the Hamiltonian $H$. The Hamiltonian (energy operator) is always the same – it captures all the information about the laws of Nature and there are the same. The ...


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First of all I recommend you to see in Internet Richard Feynman's WHY". It is exactly what he discusses, our questions about why. An electron in an atom has two major types of energy, kinetic and potential. The first one is due to the fact that the electron performs a motion, e.g. if we calculate the average of the absolute square of the linear momentum of ...


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In the same way that the basketball on a shelf could move faster (meaning, could reach a higher speed) if it was placed on a higher shelf and rolled over the edge then at a lower shelf, the atoms have a longer distance to travel when they are further apart and so could move faster (could reach a higher speed if the were set free) than if they where closer. ...


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This paper* seems to be one of the most recent papers that concerns itself with the OP's equation directly. Anything since then appears to take it as fact and use it to determine something else. *Large-angle scattering of light ions in the weakly screened Rutherford region. Phys. Rev. A 21, 1891 – Published 1 June 1980 - H. H. Andersen, F. Besenbacher, P. ...



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