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32

The definition for the cesium clock is: 9192631770 cycles per second is frequency of the radio waves which cause maximum resonance, a physically measurable condition, in the cesium atoms. This corresponds to a particular tuning of the radio. Keeping it tuned provides the reference frequency cited.


28

You're correct and the video is mistaken. In fact, if cesium atoms were constantly oscillating between the two hyperfine states, cesium beam clocks wouldn't work at all! In its simplest form, a cesium beam clock uses a magnet to separate a stream of atoms into two streams based on their hyperfine state; one state is selected to continue down the tube to be ...


8

Yes, they really are oscillating between two different states (not simply driven in one direction), but as you suspect they are not oscillating at the reference frequency. Rather than "just" sending radiation at the atoms to absorb, they also interact with an oscillating magnetic field (which is at the reference frequency). This field spurs some of the ...


8

The energy in a level $n$ is given by $$E = - \frac{Z^2 R_E}{n^2} $$ where $R_E$ is the Rydberg energy ($R_E = 13.6\mathrm{eV}$). Therefore, greater $n$ means lower energy (in absolute value), i.e., the electron is less bounded.


6

When a high energetic photon (like the gamma or X ray photon) hit a charged particle like an electron, due to inelastic collision, the photon loses some energy and the electron get scattered. The energy lost by the photon will be equal to the energy gained by the scattered electron. This process of inelastic scattering of electron by a photon is called ...


6

To combine some of the comments that have already been stated, plus some extra remarks, into something more formal: The second process described in the OP is not usually called ionization (even though the end result is an ion), but rather electron capture. In general, though, this cannot happen exactly as stated for an isolated atom $A$ capturing a free ...


5

The potential energy stored in a two like charge system will increase with decrease in distance between them. While for a two unlike charge system, the potential energy decreases with decrease in distance (means potential energy gets liberated if they come close), accounting for increase in attraction. In the equation, you provided, the potential energy ...


5

The entropy of a single atom does not make sense per se, unless you specify the preparation. The entropy of a single isolated atom, fixed at a point, is indeed not defined – the entropy is, after all, a property of an ensemble not of a system. The entropy of an ensemble of isolated atoms prepared at a specific energy, on the other hand, is well defined (this ...


4

In the Schrödinger treatment of the Hydrogen atom, the excited states are true eigenstates, that is, their lifetime is infinite. This means that, if the Hamiltonian is $$ H=\frac{P^2}{2m}+\frac{\alpha}{r} $$ then $\tau=\infty$ for all the energy levels. What this description misses is the interaction of electrons with the electromagnetic field, that is, ...


4

The most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons. Other isotopes are deuterium with 1 neutron and tritium, with 2 neutrons. Since virtually all (99.98% according to wiki) naturally occurring hydrogen comes in the no neutron isotope, it seems reasonable that books show a schematic of that one when illustrating hydrogen. As a secondary motivation, the one ...


4

If you take a bottle of gas and carry it with you on a supersonic plane, then the molecules will go much faster without the temperature changing. If you let pressurized gas flow through a well-designed nozzle (De Laval nozzle), the gas will accelerate to supersonic velocity (i.e., faster than the original thermal speed of the molecules) while the ...


3

The simplest answer, if I did not misunderstood your question, is to adiabatically compress the gas, both pressure and temperature will raise.


3

It isn't really appropriate to describe Gabrielse and Peil's experiment as an artificial atom as it's completely different to an atom. It is just a system with an electron moving in response to a potential. The system is described by the Schrodinger equation just like an atom is, and like an atom it has quantised energy levels (called Landau levels and well ...


3

Let's think about a system that has a two-fold degeneracy for some given energy level. That is, two states $ \psi_{a} $ and $ \psi_{b} $, both of which correspond to energy $ E_{0} $. An example would be a spin-1/2 particle with a Hamiltonian that is spin-independent. Now imagine that when we apply a perturbation, H', to the system, the degeneracy breaks ...


2

De-exictation is the process of transitioning from a high energy state to a lower energy state; the photon emitted has energy equal to the difference in the energy of the two states. If we're tacitly assuming that we started with a system in the ground (i.e. lowest energy) state, then something had to put the electron into the higher energy state before we ...


2

The color of the photon is related to its frequency $f$, which can be related to the energy of the photon by the expression $E = hf$, where $h$ is Planck's constant. Thus the different colors of the emitted photons describes their different energies. The next step is to determine why specific elements emit certain colors. This has to do with the different ...


2

One possible application of AMO physics would be inertial guidance systems based on atomic interferometers--similar systems are currently being investigated for missile guidance and have shown much higher accuracy than other methods. Inertial navigation systems don't rely on a network of GPS satellites, which obviously wouldn't be present on Mars (yet!)


2

Yes, the conservation of momentum is valid. The photon and the Hydrogen atom acquire equal and opposite momenta when the photon is emitted. However you must be a little careful when you are calculating the momentum as the total energy of the photon and the hydrogen atom is 10.2 eV. This means your equation will be $$ p^2/2m + pc = 10.2 eV$$ You must conserve ...


2

Before talking about entropy, we need to discuss what possible states an atom can be in. I will start by the most general case that consists in considering a single-atom gas in a 3D box. In that case, the microstate of the atom is described by: The definite linear momentum states $| \textbf{k} \rangle$ of the atom (that are eigenvectors of the hamiltonian) ...


2

This is well explained on the basis of sub shell electronic configuration. But first, let's look it by the concept of shells alone. See in the example of calcium, it has $20$ electrons. Of course the outermost shell can accommodate $18$ electrons. If it goes like $2,8,10$ then the outermost shell contains 10 electrons. The stable state is either having an ...


2

The property of Caesium that makes it such a stable oscillator is the lone electron in its $6s$ orbital. All other electrons in the lower energy levels take a symmetrical electron configuration and leave the $6s$ as an "outsider". The spin of the Caesium nucleus can cause a so-called hyperfine transition in that $6s$ electron which has a very specific ...


2

Every atom, including cesium-133, emits (or absorbs) electromagnetic waves (light or its generalization to invisible colors) when the electrons jump from one state in the atom to another. The electromagnetic radiation is a periodic process in which the electric (and similarly magnetic) fields at a given point of space behave as $$ E = E_0 \cdot \cos (2\pi f ...


2

The chemical properties of an element are always determined by the atomic number, that is, the number of protons in the nucleus. All carbon atoms have six protons, all iron atoms have 26, etc. It's the atomic number which is featured prominently in the periodic table, for example. Until the neutron was discovered in 1932, this was fine. After the neutron ...


2

You can't have strong enough electric fields to tear the proton away from the nucleus but it is really a very subtle thing and the inability is just "by a little bit". The strongest electric field that may exist is given by the Schwinger limit. In $\hbar=c=1$ units, the field is $m_e^2 /q_e$. Once you reach this value, electron-positron pairs start to be ...


1

No, there can't be atoms like that, at least not in the real world. In the magnetic case, diamagnetism means that the magnetic susceptibility may be negative (so the permeability may be lower or higher than in the vacuum, the magnetic susceptibility may have both signs). But in the electric case, the electric susceptibility is always positive, and the ...


1

You are unlucky, because the microworld of electrons nuclei, atoms and molecules has been studied with mathematical models for over a hundred years and it is not open to hand waving hypothesis of the type: I would say electrons are very tiny containers of energy, which can contain between a minimum and a maximum of such energy, depending on how much energy ...


1

By E=−Z^2RE/n2 where RE is the Rydberg energy As n increase, EPE becomes less -ve(i.e. more +ve) , indicating higher energy level Or EPE = 1/4πε( Qproton Qe-) /r, As r increase, EPE becomes less -ve(i.e. more +ve) , indicating higher energy level Thanks to everyone that helped !


1

Your intuition is correct. The error is in your calculation of the ground state energy without interactions. There are two electrons, each with energy $-4\,{\rm Ry}$, for a total of $-8\,{\rm Ry}$. The repulsion raises the energy to the experimental value.


1

As phrased, this question suggests suggests a very Bohr-like image of electrons. This answer is intended to nudge you in the direction of a quantum model, but is by no means complete. Honestly, there's no way to understand QM without delving deep into the math, and even then its difficult to make a math <-> reality correspondence. Firstly: quantum ...


1

Why can't there be any continuous energy band in an atom? This is the basic reason quantum mechanics had to be invented. Once the existence of positive and negative charges was discovered, Maxwell's equations when solved for a planetary model of a central positive charge and an orbiting negative one, are completely unstable, in contrast to the ...



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