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With the atmosphere of the moon being $10^{14}$ times less dense than that of Earth, there is negligible scattering, so whereas on Earth, approximately 25% of direct solar radiation is scattered around (making the sky light up and appear blue), there is no mechanism for this on the moon, and all light from the sun travels (essentially) unaffected to the ...

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The moon does have a night and a day, but this isn't as fully connected to your question as you might think. The moon is tidally locked with the earth, meaning that the same side always faces earth. Since the moon also orbits around the earth (with a period of a lunar month), this means that the side that faces the earth changes, over the course of a lunar ...

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Wind is a solar powered flow of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is not uniformly heated: different areas have different solar power input. This uneven heating arises because some areas are in daylight, whereas others are in night, and different regions have different amounts of cloud cover and different colored terrain, so the albedo is uneven. Uneven ...

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The force exerted by an airflow is given to a good first approximation by the classic drag equation: Force = 0.5 x Rho x Cd x A x V^2 Rho = gas density Cd = drag coefficient wrt flat plate drag ( 0 < Cd <= 1) A = projected area relative to flow V = velocity Mainly opinion: I am unaware of the particle size of Martian dust, but this information will ...

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From the Outside Your intuition is right. Rayleigh Scattering would come into effect, making the insides red and the outsides more blue. If the sun is at your back, or if the angle of sun-air-you is a right angle, you will still see light coming off of the air. However, this reflected light may be faint enough in places that you get the color of the night ...

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If i interpreted your question correctly and based on my knowledge (i don't know how good it is). This is because there is nothing to apply frictional force on the outer edge of the earth's atmosphere, whereas in case of bucket the water rubs against the boundaries of the bucket which slows down the outer part of the spinning water (dont look at it for long ...

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I'm not entirely clear on what you mean exactly, but I have a feeling you are unclear on the idea of a rotational and irrotational vortex. Using your paint bucket analogy, there are two effects that create a rotational vortex. The spinning ball will drag fluid along with it. But because there is an outer wall to the bucket, viscosity requires that velocity ...

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The same happens with the air around the earth, this phenomenon is called the Coriolis effect, and it affects our atmosphere. You also have to keep in mind that there are a lot of other variables to take into account when talking about atmosphere, like the angle of our axis towards the sun, etc...

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Simple black body radiation theory (adapted from http://www.atmos.washington.edu/2002Q4/211/notes_greenhouse.html): The earth receives a certain amount of heat per unit area from the sun - this amount is about 1370 W/m$^2$ for parts of the earth facing the sun when there is no atmosphere. But the earth presents a "disk" with area $\pi R^2$ to the sun, when ...

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It is actually very easy to consider this. We don't need any models. we are blessed with a sizable rock at exactly 1 AU from the Sun, a rock with no trace of any atmosphere at all: Moon (Source: Wikimedia Commons) Temperatures on the moon vary from 70K to 390K. Average temperatures, depending on location, vary from 130K at the poles to 220K at the ...

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