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I think, after reading what´s written above, we must make a distinction between systems that are big and little, like the atmosphere and a single billiard ball. I´s clear that a billiard ball on a table makes a journey that deviates more and more from the path it would have taken hadn´t you give a slightly different direction in velocity. Consider now a ...

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It's all density. Gravity should start to immediately pull it down. The density of the cloud nor atmosphere can hold it up. More than up draft would be needed

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Have a look at the answers to Pressure and altitude as they explain how the pressure:altitude equation is derived. There is nothing wrong with our working, but you have assumed that the temperature is constant and in reality the temperature falls with altitude (in the troposphere at least). That means the pressure falls more rapidly with height than your ...

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After further research, I've concluded that the ideal gas law would work for Venus' supercritical fluid atmosphere, at least reasonably well enough for my curiosity, and certainly as well as it would here on Earth. My research took me to learning compressibility factor, equations of state, and several other real gas topics. From what I gather, a gas ...

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The ideal gas law assumes that there are no forces between molecules of a gas, and that the size of the molecules is negligible compared to the volume of the gas. When a gas becomes a liquid, these assumptions are clearly violated; and when it becomes supercritical, the density is typically still such that the second assumption is almost certainly not valid ...

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'zero sum game' Thermalization spreads the absorbed photon energy so rapidly throughout the thousands of surrounding molecules so rapidly that there is virtually undetectable heating rate (increase in T2) and the energy returned to the GH molecule is tiny and will take a long time to statistically accumulate enough energy in any given GH molecule to re-emit ...

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I've worked out a formula that assumes no absorption in the atmosphere, and that light is only backscattered. It takes into account the backscattering of the light reflected off the surface. In the diagram below: TOA is Top Of Atmosphere $\tau_a$ and $A_a$ are the transmittance and albedo of the atmosphere such that $\tau_a+A_a=1$ $A_s$ is the albedo of ...

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The Albedo describes the fraction of radiation reflected for a given area of the surface. If you are combining albedos for different parts of the surface of a body, you need to weight them by their areas, for example consider albedos $\alpha_1$ and $\alpha_2$ corresponding to areas $A_1$ and $A_2$, then the effective albedo for the total area is: ...

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Shouldn't the concentration of nitrogen increase with higher altitudes since nitrogen has a lower density than oxygen? No, it shouldn't, at least not up to 100 km or so. Look at your graph, which shows that even argon is well-mixed throughout the lower atmosphere (the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Argon atoms are considerably more massive ...

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