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The progenitor bias arises in attempts to study early-type (elliptical) galaxies at higher redshift. The desire is to choose a sample of galaxies at high $z$ that are the analogs of the galaxies that evolved to form the low $z$ sample. The bias arises if one chooses a sample of only early-types at high $z$. Because some late-types eventually evolve into ...

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The reason the hottest temperatures of the year are later than the solstice is because the land and oceans need time to warm up. Interestingly enough, there's a name for this phenomenon - "the lag of the seasons".

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Gamma Ray Bursts happen in galaxies, and the ISM in the host galaxy will leave spectral imprints on the GRB afterglow spectrum. This also means that besides being interesting in their own right, GRB afterglows are also valuable light sources for various cosmological uses, including galaxy evolution and IGM analysis.

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