0
votes
0answers
8 views

What is the work being done a girl carrying a bag walking down the street.?

What is the work being done a girl carrying a bag walking down the steet
0
votes
1answer
13 views

How to check if some term in the Lagrangian involving gauge bosons is gauge invariant without explicit computations?

Normally (for fermions and scalars) we can simply use the decomposition of tensor products of gauge group representations to find invariant terms that we can write into the Lagrangian. For example ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Gauge freedom in tetrad

I asked the question in the MathOverflow, but didn't get any response. I thought maybe better luck here. I'm reading the following paper about Petrov type D space times called "Type D vacuum ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Do gauge bosons really transform according to the adjoint representation of the gauge group?

Its commonly said that gauge bosons transform according to the adjoint representation of the corresponding gauge group. For example, for $SU(2)$ the gauge bosons live in the adjoint $3$ dimensional ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Why are bare mass terms for W-bosons forbidden, but coupling terms to Higgs doublets allowed?

The $W$ bosons live in the adjoint rep of $SU(2)$, which is three dimensional. The standard model Higgs lives in a $SU(2)$ doublet, i.e. the two dimensional rep. The $W$ bosons get their mass ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Doubts taking the second functional derivative of the Klein Gordon action

I have very little background with functional derivatives and I would like to clarify some issues. I am trying to compute the second functional derivative of the Klein Gordon action expressed in real ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

Spinning rubber ball with equatorial ridge

I have this rubber ball with something like a very slight equatorial ridge (sort of like Saturn's moon Iapetus) which I often spin around on my desk. I keep noticing that no matter the inclination of ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

How to improve the power output of an AC motor without changing its characteristics

I have an AC motor at 230V/50Hz and 2.2 KW power that will power a drilling bit for cutting wood. The motor has 3000 RPM, but if I attach the drilling bit (8 cm wide, 15 cm long and with a step of 8 ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Mass spectrum of field theory

How can I find the mass spectrum of a field theory given a Lagrangian made of a canonical kinetic term and a potential. I mean, I think I have to find the matrix of the quadratical terms in all the ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Hyper/parabolic kepler orbits and “mean anomaly”

In an elliptical kepler orbit there is an easy recipe to describe the motion/position of a satellite at time $t$. One just follows the following steps - an important detail for me is that the ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Superconductor in a parallel vs perpendicular field

My question concern's the huge difference in critical fields regarding a thin superconductor(SC) which is surrounded by a magnetic field. lets imagine the SC is a thin film in the x-y Plane: Applying ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

I tried to solve circuit analysis problem but it failed [on hold]

I tried to solve circuit analysis problem in Hayt's Circuit Analysis 7th. But my answer is wrong and I don't know why I failed to solve this. Here's the question. I have to find what the value of v3 ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Why Electron Does Not Radiate In Bohr Orbits? [duplicate]

Maxwell said that charged particles radiate when are in accelarating motion. I understand that $nλ=2πr$ must be fulfilled in order to create a sinusoidal standing wave and to satisfy the probability ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Preventing Heat Escape

Is is possible to completely prevent heat from escaping from a closed container? Here is a diagram of vacuum flask, which tries to implement the design - Vacuum Flask prevents heat from escaping ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Hot water from a faucet

Why does hot water come out of a faucet cloudy white? The cold water comes out clear, but if you turn the hot water tap on, it'll be clear until it gets hot and then turns a cloudy white colour. ...
-6
votes
0answers
16 views

Need help please [on hold]

An electron's speed is doubled from $0.2~c$ to $0.4~c$. By what ratio does its momentum increase? What happens to the momentum ratio when the electron's speed is doubled again from $0.4~c$ to $0.8~c$? ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Why is voltage essential in circuits?

I understand what voltage is, but why is it necessary for an electric circuit to function? Why can't current flow without a voltage? Thanks
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Symmetry axis and products of inertia

So if we have an object that has a symmetry axis let us say $z$-axis is a symmetry axis does this mean that the product of inertia $I_{zx} = I_{zy} = 0$? And if that is true why is it true ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Bertrand's Theorem: Perturbative Methods Leading to $1/r^3$ Solution

My professor and I have been working on a proof of Bertrand's Theorem using perturbative methods. We have arrived at a solution yielding 1/r^3, which we had presumed to be an incorrect result. While ...
0
votes
2answers
21 views

Velocity of Rocket Exhaust

i recently learned a bit of rocket propulsion.It wasn't much complex but was explained in simple terms.The only problem i had understanding it was that in calculating the thrust of rocket the velocity ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Modelling Fourier Transform Profilometry

Basically I want to simulate a surface profilometry technique through Matlab. For that I want to create a GUI with controls for generating a grating pattern of light at a particular angle with respect ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Flow Rate Calculation from a drain tank through a pipe

I want to know how to calculate the flowrate (Q) of a drain tank flowing through a pipe (see the figure below) All I know is that Q=Velocity(V) x Area (A) V= sqrt(2*g*H)=sqrt(2*9.81*10)=14m/s. I ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Applicability of Occam's Razor

Is there a solid mathematical or physical argument on the applicability of Occam's Razor at cosmological scales, or with regard to physical laws? I've recently become aware of mathematical ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Is magnetic reconnection reconciliable with magnetic field lines neither starting nor ending?

According to Maxwell's equations, magnetic fields are divergence-free: $\nabla \cdot \mathbf{B} = 0$. If I understand this correctly, this means that magnetic field lines do not start or end. How can ...
-2
votes
0answers
17 views

its tricky circuit to given output voltage find without source

solve it two quation in that pic,1) find Vout voltage and 2) no source given and find v1,v2,v3.
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Global cosmic strings evolution

Recently I've read about axion string. It can be shown that the energy per unit length of the string located along $z$ axis is $$ \mu = 2 \pi f_{a}^{2}\ln\left( \frac{L}{\delta}\right), $$ where $L$ ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Deriving Gravitational Potential Energy using Vectors

Here is my attempt at derivation: First you must find a vector function for the gravitational force. By the inverse square law, the magnitude of gravitational force between two bodies of mass $m$ ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Quantum computing can be done via measurement alone, why is this significant?

I read in the Afterword section of Nielsen and Chuang's book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information that A second area of progress has been in understanding of what physical resources are ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Fun physics book for high school student [duplicate]

can anyone recommend me a physics book for a highschool student (not these typical school books) a book that will let you think mostly interested in theoretical /quantum physics done with the ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Bernoulli's principle in moving car not works

According to Bernoulli's principle, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure. As I understand that also applies to gas or air. Ok, so when I open a ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Reformulating a traditional minimization problem as a stationary action problem

A famous problem in financial theory is formulated as follows: $$\min_{\mathbf{w}} \sigma^2 \:\:\:\:\:s.t. \:\:\mathbf{w'}\mathbf{1}=1 \:\:\:\: \mathbf{w'}\mathbf{y}=k$$ Where lower case bold faced ...
-4
votes
0answers
16 views

Is the Universe a 4D elastic shell that is contracting with time, where particles are traveling waves or standing waves of energy density? [on hold]

In gravitational red shift, “the phenomenon known as the red shift of a photon is really the blue shift of an atom.” This conclusion also applies to Galactic redshift. According to Hubble’s law, when ...
-5
votes
0answers
19 views

Free fall motion of a body [on hold]

A ball is projected vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 100m/s. Find the speed of the ball at its maximum height Take g=10metre per second square.
-2
votes
0answers
13 views

Average velocity of a clock [on hold]

The minute hand opf a clock is 4 cm long Find the average velocity of the tip of the minute hand between 11:00 a.m to 11:30a.m and 11:00 a.m to 11:30 p.m
-2
votes
0answers
18 views

Motion of particle in $T$ seconds [on hold]

A particle starts moving from rest position ($v = 0$) under a constant acceleration $a$. If it travels a distance $\Delta{x}$ in time $T$, what distance will it travel in the next time $T$?
0
votes
0answers
32 views

What fills the space between the galaxies, stars and planets?

What fills the space between the galaxies, stars and planets with the exception of gas clouds, dust, atoms, elementary particles and electromagnetic radiation? What the authoritative opinions exist on ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Shear flow in J section type beam

What does the distribution of shear flow look like in a J section type beam. I'm only interested in a qualitative picture of it. I'm not interested in the calculations themselves. It is the top of the ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Heat equation with heat loss to surroundings

I am trying to model one dimensional heat diffusion within a uniform copper rod with insulated ends. In addition, I am including a term that models the heat loss to the surroundings from the lateral ...
0
votes
4answers
73 views

Can a photon have little to no energy and/or speed?

Can a photon move more slowly than the speed of light and behave 'non-relativistically,' so to speak. Perhaps another way to express my thought is: could we stop a photon from moving?
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Does a free electron, one that's not either in an atom or a wire, have an associated wave-function?

Would a free electron, one that's not either in an atom or moving through a wire, but moving through empty space on its own, have an associated wave-function? Or, is an electron described as a ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

question about Gauss law

If I have an infinite plate with the surface charge of sigma. I know that my electric field is constant $2\pi\sigma$ (using Gauss's law). If I build the Gaussian surface above the plate the charge ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Can tachyons escape the gravitational pull of a black hole?

Anything that crosses the event horizon of a black hole cannot escape the pull since it has crossed the Schwarzschild radius and thus, the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light, and since ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Expanding free scalar field in terms of ladder operators

I'm having some difficulty with the finer points of expanding a field in terms of ladder operators. Note that this is not identical to the other related question I asked. From Peskin / Schroeder; ...
3
votes
2answers
131 views

Quantum mechanics and the atom

I was thinking about the nature of the atom, specifically, why electrons do not spiral into the nucleus. My physics book says the principal quantum number $n$ must be an integer number of wave ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Force of electromagnet on a wire

I'm trying to produce an equation for the force produced by an electromagnet on a wire. I'm very aware I don't know any vector calculus but I think as it's the special case (Perpendicular) I can just ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Is temperature the speed of electrons?

Back in the middle school (which I guess was about 10 years ago) I remember being taught that the temperature of an atom is basically the speed of electrons circling the nucleus which kinda made sense ...
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

Density and Pressure [on hold]

Suppose there is a U-shaped tube on a table: In which right arm is shorter than the left arm.The open end of the right arm is 10cm above the table.The radius throughout the tube is 1.5cm. Water is ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What is the capacity of this circuit? [duplicate]

I simply can't figure out what the capacity of this circuit is. I can do the math myself, I just need a hint how to create an equivalent circuit where it is obvious what is parallel and what is in ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Mode operators in the Virasoro algebra

This questions concerns Exercise 2.11 in Polchinski. We are asked to compute the commutator $$L_{m}(L_{-m}|0;0\rangle) - L_{-m}(L_{m} |0;0\rangle)$$ By plugging the mode expansions, we use the ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

How to calculate Eulerian velocity from Lagrangian velocity [on hold]

I'm doing research involving particles travelling through a viscous liquid. I've calculated the Lagrangian velocity, and I was wondering what would need to be done to derive the Eulerian velocity from ...

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