1
vote
5answers
30 views

Light's oscillation in time

Electromagnetic waves have electric (and magnetic) fields that oscillate spatially and with time. But light, moving at the universal speed limit, is a "space-like" object according to relativity since ...
2
votes
3answers
32 views

A reference frame is any coordinate system or just a set of cartesian axes?

In Physics the idea of a reference frame is one important idea. In many texts I've seem, a reference frame is not defined explicitly, but rather there seems to be one implicit definition that a ...
0
votes
1answer
2 views

Coincidences in diffractograms through thin metal foils

Diffraction through thin foils has always been considered evidence for the wave behavior of the incident particles, $X$-photons at first, then electrons, protons, neutrons, $α$-particles, etc. After ...
0
votes
1answer
92 views

Massless boson in 2D and its (retarded) propagator

I have the retarded propagator for a free scalar field in 1+1 dimensions. Inside the light cone, this looks like $J_0(m \sqrt(t^2-x^2))$, J being a Bessel function. When I take the massless limit, ...
8
votes
4answers
362 views

Zero velocity, zero acceleration?

In one dimension, the acceleration of a particle can be written as: $$a = \frac{dv}{dt} = \frac{dv}{dx} \frac{dx}{dt} = v \frac{dv}{dx}$$ Does this equation imply that if: $$v = 0$$ Then: $$a = ...
-1
votes
1answer
13 views

Power Density of Dark Energy (W/m³)

In cosmology empty space has an energy density $\rho_{\Lambda}$ of $$\rho_{\Lambda}=\rho_c \cdot \Omega_{\Lambda}\cdot c^2$$ with $\Omega_{\Lambda}$ beeing the dark energy fraction ($0.683$ ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Double slit experiment collimating lens?

In some appratus for the Young's double slit experiment a collimating lens is used infront of the double slits, meaning plane wavefronts hit the double slits. But why do we need/want plane wavefronts ...
-5
votes
0answers
9 views

tesla's theorys on aether

So far I have read on this site that Tesla is nothing but a crackpot and if you have anything to say that differs from this then you are an idiot. I have been interested in Tesla's works for a long ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

What does it mean to have a degenerate $S$-matrix?

The Coleman-Mandula theorem $D>2$ assumes that the quantum field theory may not have a degenerate $S$-matrix. But what does it mean to have a degenerate $S$-matrix? The $S$-matrix if I got it ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Help understanding what the Hamiltonian signifies for the action compared with the Euler-Lagrange equations for the Lagrangian?

Consider the Lagrangian for a simple harmonic oscillator \begin{equation} L (x,\dot{x}) = \frac{1}{2}m\dot{x}^2 - \frac{1}{2}kx^2 \end{equation} Obviously we have \begin{align} \frac{\partial ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Looking for more information about these two hypotheses

Big Lurch - This was one I read about in a special issue of Scientific American from 2014. It was explained as "The Big Lurch is a theoretical scientific model suggested as one of the possibilities ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Is the difference between an event horizon and a singularity merely perspective?

I know the question has been asked about how an event horizon is distinguishable from a singularity given that time must come to a stop at the event horizon, but I haven't been fully satisfied by the ...
7
votes
1answer
198 views

Shape of the state space under different tensor products

I am currently studying generalized probabilistic theories. Let me roughly recall how such a theory looks like (you can skip this and go to "My question" if you are familiar with this). Recall: In a ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

If photon-photon interactions are impossible, how are higher harmonics generated?

In nonlinear optics, it is a rather common process to use nonlinear materials to produce higher harmonics of an incident wave. About the mechanism of the generation of such higher harmonics, it is ...
2
votes
0answers
16 views

Are all reference frames equally valid?

Are accelerated reference frames as valid / real as inertial frames, or are accelerated frames a convenience of integrating across a continuum of inertial frames? For instance, it makes sense to ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

Dark Energy EoS: which models ruled out, which remain?

Dark energy density is mostly assumed to be a constant, where the equation of state for w=-1 (for radiation it would be w=1/3, for matter w=0 and for curvature -1/3), so in the simplest model the ...
6
votes
1answer
208 views

How to construct an isomorphism between the Complexified Special Linear Lie Group and the Special Unitary Group?

This may be an unenlightening question, but I'm just not sure about the result and hoping someone can help me varify it. $\\$ This question is related to these three questions. $\\$ I want to ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Compactified extra dimensions and symmetry

It's my understanding that M-Theory necessitates 11 space-time dimensions (10 spatial dimensions plus 1 time dimension) in order work mathematically. This appears to jar with reality, which only ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Feynman Propagator in Position Space through Schwinger Parameter

So I am aware of a thread at Propagator of a scalar in position space but it does not answer my question, which is more about poles in position space. Starting from $D_F(x_1-x_2) = \int \frac{d^4 ...
-1
votes
0answers
5 views

finding charge on plastic spheres [on hold]

A piece of wool is used to charge two plastic spheres. When the spheres are held 300mm apart, they repel each other with 9.00N of force. If the wool ends up with a surplus positive charge of 29.5μC , ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

What happens to photons that get trapped in a black holes event horizon?

So, I know that photons do not travel fast enough to escape a black hole once it passes the event horizon. Also, I know that the photons themselves aren't affected by the gravity, but rather their ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Triangular barrier in infinite potential well

Suppose I am looking to solve the wavefunction for the following 1D potential: $$\psi(x) = \begin{cases}V_0\frac{a-|x|}{a}&\quad\text{for}\quad|x|<a ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Branch cuts in two-point function

The propagator of a QFT is known to have a branch cut as a function of the (complex) external momentum. The branch point (as done by, say, Peskin & Schroeder in eqn.7.19 section 7.1) is ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Dipole moment of a specific charge distribution

A negative charge cloud distribute as a ellipsoid and a positive point charge situated at the centre of the ellipsoid.What should be the dipole moment of charge distribution.I mean, if the negative ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

The limited Computing Capabilities of Space, Increased quantized info leads to time-dilation?

Are there any approaches to Special and General Relativity using space as a computing medium? With space having a maximum computing capability and time dilation as lag? Could this idea describe the ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Hartree Fock equations

I don't understand how the Hartree Fock equations define an iterative method! For this discussion, I am referring to the HF equations as described here: click me! Basically if you guess a bunch of ...
-5
votes
1answer
26 views

What is the top speed of the SR-72 aircraft? What affects would traveling at this speed have on the human body?

What is the top speed of the SR-72 aircraft? What affects would traveling at this speed have on the human body?
1
vote
1answer
17 views

Given the quadrupole moment of the nucleus as Q, is it possible to find the order of magnitude of the dimensions of the nucleus?

Given the quadrupole moment of the nucleus as Q, is it possible to find the order of magnitude of the dimensions of the nucleus? ( order of magnitude means approximate value to the powers of ten)
8
votes
7answers
17k views

Can magnetic fields be redirected and focused at one point?

I know that magnetic fields can be redirected, but... given a situation where you have static magnetic field over a large area, and you want to quickly change the magnetic field strength. Is it ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Solving for the density operator in the quantum Brownian motion master equation

I want to solve for the density operator in the quantum Brownian motion master equation, \begin{align} \begin{aligned} ...
2
votes
1answer
157 views

What is the simplest way to perform a Cavendish experiment?

The Cavendish experiment is cool, but seems complicated to experimentally perform. What is a simple way to recreate the experiment?
-1
votes
2answers
47 views

Electric field 0 everywhere inside Gaussian surface

Gauss's Law shows that the electric field everywhere inside a spherical shell of uniform charge density is $0$. Suppose we have a surface which divides space into two disjoint regions (an interior and ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Is there a typology of different fundamental physical objects?

As I understand it (and of course, I may be wrong!).... In classical mechanics, all objects are basically the same in the sense that They are composed of atoms bunched together. These atoms occupy ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Finding the Expectation Value of basis states [on hold]

I am a Mathematician and I am taking a Quantum Computing class. We have been asked to find the expectation value of $X$ tensor $Z$ and $H$ tensor $H$. X is the not operator and switches the state the ...
17
votes
4answers
3k views

Boiling water and salt

I would like to have a good understanding of what is happening when you add salt to boiling water. My understanding is that the boiling point will be higher, thus lengthening the process (obtaining ...
6
votes
1answer
170 views

How is extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation collected by a submarine antenna?

The U.S. Navy Project ELF managed to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation at down to $\approx 76$ Hz (implying a wavelength of $\approx 3,945$ km!). I was curious, what kind of receiving ...
1
vote
2answers
18 views

How does the radius of a pipe affect the rate of flow of fluid?

Poiseuille's law states that the rate of flow of water is proportionate to $r^4$ where $r$ is the radius of the pipe. I don't see why. Intuitively I would expect rate of flow of fluid to vary with ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

What does a 'complex displacement' of phonon mode mean?

I'm trying to interpret the phonon mode output file from a phonopy/vasp calculation, and this webpage talks about the 'complex displacement' of atoms in the system, and I'm not quite sure what it ...
-1
votes
0answers
4 views

Thickness of Si-substrate

we fabricate pn Heterojunction on p-Si(100). Is there any difference if the thickness of si-substrate become 260 micro.m. or 570 micro m. And which is better for the Heterojunction performance?
0
votes
2answers
28 views

What does the gradient of a graph of 1/current against resistance graph represent?

I did an experiment to investigate how current varied with changing resistance and plotted my results on a graph of 1/current against resistance.The graph is a straight line showing $1/I$ to be ...
3
votes
2answers
99 views

How does vasoconstriction/vasodilation of arterioles change blood pressure?

Background: I am coming at this question from an electrical engineering background, and I feel like I am missing certain assumptions that are going into the statement found in my physiology textbook, ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

How is $P = P_{ext}$ derived, for reversible processes?

I know that for a reversible process the inexact differential of $Q$ must be equal to $TdS$ because the total entropy of the universe must remain constant. Is there a way to formally derive that the ...
4
votes
1answer
35 views

The Frequency of a Trill

My music teacher recently pointed out to me that, when performing a trill (alternating between two notes very quickly) the finger for the higher note should be placed slightly lower on the string than ...
5
votes
4answers
5k views

Torque vs Moment

I was wondering, why in Newtonian physics torque is called "torque" while in static mechanics they call it "moment"? I prefer by far the term "torque", for not only it sounds strong, but also ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Length contraction alongside acceleration

Let's have a ship, a target and a ship traveler which we use as point of view. Assuming no other object are observed and we are so far from any other object that gravity distortion are negligible, I'm ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

Confused about the “negative” - “positive” direction in this case [on hold]

If we have a graph on a pc screen of velocity versus time and the line on that graph is pointing downward implying a slope with a negative value which is a.k.a acceleration here. Now, you have a ...
3
votes
2answers
73 views

Calculating the mass of a wormhole

What would for an observer be the mass of an isolated Wormhole (meaning that there is no gas and no mass of stars arround it) if the wormhole mouth oposite to the observer reflects the light of a ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

Orbital Velocity Question

I have a satellite in a stable trajectory around Earth, of a Mass $m$. I know that its velocity is: $$ v = \sqrt{mG/r}\, $$ But now it begins accelerating directly against the gravity vector (i.e. ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Integrals in tight-binding method

In the tight-binding method, as e.g. described in Ashcroft and Mermin one need to solve a few integrals in order to proceed. For example for the overlap between an orbital situated at two different ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Permutation operator and second quantization

I just read that a permutation operator $P_{i,j}$ acts on a product state $|a_1,...,a_n \rangle \in H^n$ by $$P_{i,j} |a_1,...,a_i,a_j,...a_n\rangle = |a_1,...,a_j,a_i,...a_n \rangle .$$ Now my ...

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