3
votes
1answer
2k views

Where are the ice rings in X-ray crystallography located?

I threw this image of one of my protein crystal's diffraction pattern (not the greatest) on a poster, and was wondering where (what reciprocal dimension) the ice rings are located as it might be a ...
5
votes
3answers
324 views

Is the equivalence principle strictly fulfilled by general relativity?

The equivalence principle states The outcome of any local experiment in a freely falling laboratory is independent of the velocity of the laboratory and its location in spacetime. Any real local ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Is 4-velocity normalized to -1 even for non-geodesic timelike curves?

In Hartle's General Relativity book ("Gravity"), one of the problems (chapter 8 problem 6) is to prove that $g_{\mu\nu}u^\mu u^\nu$ is conserved along geodesics (really not hard to show), where ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

In layman's terms, what is a quantum fluctuation?

What causes it and how does it occur? If you do post some mathematics, please explain what each term means too please.
5
votes
2answers
669 views

Is (0,0,0) an undefined vector?

I'm not sure what to make of the direction of a vector with components (0,0,0). Is it an undefined vector?
4
votes
2answers
349 views

Lorentz Transformation via Geometry

Today, I was tutoring and explained the space-time. I explained how one can convert North-South into West-East by rotating, and how you can convert time into space with velocity. Below the ...
4
votes
2answers
548 views

Why is the Dirac operator so important - in both physics and mathematics?

Why is the Dirac operator considered so important - in both physics and (pure) mathematics?
12
votes
10answers
872 views

What objective criteria distinguish between valid science, fringe science and pseudoscience in physics?

Plenty of research activity in physics have been vigorously opposed by their opponents as pseudoscience or fringe science, while other research are mainstream. It is possible some topic is ...
1
vote
2answers
316 views

What does transport equation represent in terms of physical quantities?

In my math course we're taught to solve PDE (partial derivative equations) like transport equation: $$ c\frac{\partial u}{\partial x} +\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}~=~0. $$ If $u(x,t)$ is the ...
4
votes
3answers
885 views

Planetary model of atom still valid?

When I was in school, I learned (from Democritus) that an atom was similar to a solar system, with the nucleus being the sun, and the electrons being the planets. Of course, there are some ...
2
votes
1answer
408 views

given the infinitesimal generator can we deduce the symmetry?

for example given the differential operator $ \partial _{x} $ we know that it belong to the translation $ y=x+a $ for some 'a' given the differential operator $ x\partial _{x} $ we know that we are ...
0
votes
2answers
398 views

Length of publication cycle for peer-reviewed journals [closed]

Is there any data of the expected length of publication cycle with respect to different peer-reviewed journals in theoretical physics? I know that the length depends on many things, including the ...
3
votes
0answers
280 views

Does a thermally expanding torus experience internal stress?

I'm trying to learn continuum mechanics and thermo-mechanics. As we know, heating an object increases the mean atomic distance $a_0$ of the atoms in a rigid body. Let's assume it is a linear elastic ...
0
votes
2answers
248 views

Electromagnetic Radiation

If there was a way to see the electromagnetic waves that is all around us, i.e. see the electric and magnetic fields spreading away from an antenna say, how would it look? I mean if we were to freeze ...
0
votes
2answers
206 views

Speed Distribution of The Particles

I want to know the distribution of the particles's speed. The particles what I mean are nucleons and electrons of element. Consume there is 1kg of iron on room temperature and it's shape is sphere. ...
9
votes
1answer
417 views

Some questions about the spectral function

If you think that this question is likely to get closed then please do not answer and only say that in the comments since this system doesn't let me delete the question once it has answers. ...
17
votes
2answers
3k views

Is there an intuitive reason the brachistochrone and the tautochrone are the same curve?

The brachistochrone problem asks what shape a hill should be so a ball slides down in the least time. The tautochrone problem asks what shape yields an oscillation frequency that is independent of ...
9
votes
1answer
825 views

Quivers in String Theory

Why do a physicist, particularly a string theorist care about Quivers ? Essentially what I'm interested to know is the origin of quivers in string theory and why studying quivers is a natural thing ...
2
votes
1answer
373 views

Transparent boundary condition [closed]

I am interested in the finite-difference beam propagation method and its applications. I try to solve the Helmholtz equation. At first, i would like to solve numerically it for the easiest case, ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Penetration of armor plate

Is there a simple mathematical expression for the stopping power of a given thickness of armor, given the thickness of armor plate, the radius of a cannon ball, the density of the cannonball and the ...
9
votes
4answers
20k views

What is the math knowledge necessary for starting Quantum Mechanics?

Could someone experienced in the field tell me what the minimal math knowledge one must obtain in order to grasp the introductory Quantum Mechanics book/course? I do have math knowledge but I must ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Energy is actually the momentum in the direction of time?

By comparatively examining the operators a student concludes that `Energy is actually the momentum in the direction of time.' Is this student right? Could he be wrong?
4
votes
3answers
961 views

How to concisely explain apparent retrograde motions of planets?

Some planetary orbits occasionally can appear to move backwards to an observer on the Earth? Does anyone know concise, clear, web-based visualizations, animations or tutorials that clearly show how ...
1
vote
2answers
527 views

What happens to body chemistry at the speed of light? [duplicate]

Assume that I'm traveling at the speed of light in one direction. My brain is also traveling at the speed of light in that direction. Presumably there is at least one receptor site in my brain that is ...
3
votes
1answer
270 views

WKB approximation to loop diagrams

I'm a bit confused with the terminology here. This paper claimed to use WKB method to calculate the usual loop diagrams. Notice that the vertex is approximated by expanding around the classical ...
6
votes
1answer
413 views

Motivation for maximum Renyi/Tsallis entropy

The Conditional limit theorem of Van Campenhout and Cover gives a physical reason for maximizing (Shannon) entropy. Nowadays, in statistical mechanics, people talk about maximum Renyi/Tsallis entropy ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Is instantaneous velocity an abstraction?

In introductory analysis, the discussion the derivative emphasizes that while average rates of change are measurable, instantaneous rates of change are a "limiting abstraction". While this makes ...
-1
votes
1answer
106 views

Mathematical Modelling for Efficiency of PV thermal technology

As the efficiency of PV thermal or wind energy decreases with time(from the installment). Is there any mathematical model that gives its relation with time. i.e., whether it is a linear decrease or ...
4
votes
1answer
172 views

Reflected optical rotation of polarised light

Assume polarised light travels through an optically active medium (e.g. water with lots of sugar) with the specific angle $\alpha_s$ of depth $d$ at which end it is reflected (so in total it travels ...
0
votes
1answer
3k views

Definition of “localized state”

Is there a definition of a localized state in quantum mechanics? I've seen that some textbooks use this term, but they don't give a definition. Thanks
2
votes
2answers
172 views

How do I find the time for Pleiades to be at Zenith today

I am looking for a way find the time when: Pleiades will be at the Zenith today (11th November 2011) Pleiades will conjunct with the Moon The Moon will be at the Zenith today How do I find those ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Which low energy SUSY models are compatible with LHC and tevatron data so far?

The LHC data has eliminated huge swaths of permissible low energy SUSY breaking models. But not all. Which regions of parameter space are still open?
0
votes
1answer
166 views

What is the dominant interaction in elastic collision pi- + neutron -> pi- + neutron?

What is the dominant interaction in elastic collision pi- + neutron -> pi- + neutron? Is it strong nuclear interaction or electromagnetism? Edit: sorry I meant to say "elastic". There is no matter - ...
0
votes
1answer
421 views

What final states can proton-proton collision generate?

What final states can proton-proton collision generate? Where to find listing of possible final states of a particle interaction, for example proton colliding with proton?
10
votes
1answer
1k views

What are the specific requirements for a do-it-yourself quantum double-slit experiment?

I was shocked to recently learn that the double-slit experiment is not only possible to do with completely ordinary equipment (with photons of course), but it actually looks rather easy. This is from ...
1
vote
3answers
403 views

How long does it take for expanding space to double in size

I have been reading about Hubble's constant and trying to make 'sense' of the theory of the expanding Universe. Is is possible that space in the universe expands uniformly? If so, absent of other ...
10
votes
3answers
19k views

When does 'energy' turn to matter?

I always hear about matter converting to 'energy' - fusion, fission. When does it go the other way around? What conditions lead to it? Are there reproducible experiments on this topic?
2
votes
1answer
528 views

How many different formulations of QM currently exist?

I read some while ago that, currently, eleven different formulations of quantum mechanics exist. Is this correct / accurate? If yes, can someone provide a pointer(s) (i.e. link(s)) to the various ...
0
votes
0answers
93 views

Literature request for books / review papers on gravitation, gauge theories and related mathematics [duplicate]

Similar to this reference, are there more such references / works [including textbooks] available in the literature? (A list would be greatly welcomed and appreciated.) With great appreciation.
3
votes
1answer
133 views

Definition regarding percolation

in a homework sheet studying bond-percolation on the Bethe lattice, a function $g(r)$ is introduced as "the probability of finding two nodes separated by a distance $r$ on the same cluster". Now ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Use of advanced mathematics in astronomy, like topology, abstract algebra, or others

I know that topology, abstract algebra, K-theory, Riemannian geometry and others, can be used in physics. Are some of these areas used in astronomy, and are some astronomical theories based on them? ...
6
votes
1answer
285 views

Scherk-Schwarz and other compactifications?

I have been thinking about various types of compactifications and have been wondering if I have been understanding them, and how they all fit together, correctly. From my understanding, if we want ...
1
vote
1answer
379 views

Understanding P-, CP-, CPT-violation etc. in field theory and in relation to the principle of relativity

I can never get my head around the violations of $P-$, $CP-$, $CPT-$ violations and their friends. Since the single term "symmetry" is so overused in physics and one has for example to watch out and ...
2
votes
2answers
259 views

What is deep Fresnel region?

If I understand correctly, it has something to do with autocorrelation function, but can someone give me a definition or exact explanation? In case of scattering, if you wish to analyze pattern with ...
2
votes
1answer
812 views

Condensed matter physics for mathematicians [duplicate]

What is a good way for me to learn the basics of condensed matter physics? I'd like to get a better understanding of the fundamentals behind recent technological developments like OLEDs, applications ...
6
votes
1answer
167 views

Quantum mechanics as a Markov process

I am currently involved in some understanding on this matter with a colleague of mine. I know all the literature about but I do not know the state of art. Please, could you provide some relevant ...
4
votes
1answer
939 views

Calculating the heat capacity of a system

I have started reading Statistical Physics by F. Mandl and I would appreciate some help with the following exercise A system consists of $N$ weakly interacting subsystems. Each subsystem possesses ...
3
votes
2answers
334 views

Quantum Mechanics Video lectures

Are there any good video lectures for learning quantum mechanics at the level of Griffith?
3
votes
2answers
396 views

Big Bang and Cosmic microwave background radiation?

One of the experimental evidence that supports the theory of big bang is cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). From what I've read is that CMBR is the left over radiation from an early stage ...
9
votes
4answers
10k views

Why is energy in a wave proportional to amplitude squared

I'm a mathematics student trying to grasp some basics about wave propagation. A sentence I find very often in introductive physics textbooks is the following: In a wave, energy is proportional to ...

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