1
vote
1answer
77 views

Speed of light's relation with the expansion of the universe [duplicate]

If nothing can travel at the speed of light and light cannot escape the universe, then the rate of expansion of the universe should be equal to the speed of light, why it is not?
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Surface charge density relation with the radius of curvature at the surface of a conductor [closed]

In a text book it was given that the surface charge density of a conductor at a particular region on its surface is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature at that region. I didn't ...
2
votes
0answers
115 views

Geometric quantization in Kepler problem in hydrogen atom

Why in the usual geometric quantization calculation the dimensions of eigenspaces is wrong (we can see this obstacle for Kepler problem in hydrogen atom). Here is a refference see
3
votes
1answer
298 views

Transmission + Reflection coefficients >1 For Potencial Barrier with Negative Complex Part Contradicts Paper

I am studying reflection and transmission coefficients for a barrier consisting of a a step potencial defined by: $$V(x):=\begin{cases}0&{\rm if}\,|x|>a/2 \\ V_0+iW_0 & {\rm ...
0
votes
0answers
753 views

Classical regime for Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein gases

I'm studying statistical mechanics, in particular classical regime for Fermi Dirac and Bose Einstein gases. Time average value for occupation numbers in FDBE statistics: $$ \langle ...
6
votes
3answers
233 views

Are there any Meson colliders?

There are no stable mesons as far as I know. Are there any meson-colliders analogous to for example proton-proton colliders? Edit: This edit was made more than a year after the original question was ...
3
votes
1answer
183 views

Is boson sampling a problem in 'continuous variable' quantum information?

When people generally speak of quantum information in the context of continuous variables, what is generally meant is that observables, like position/momentum or the field quadratures of quantum ...
6
votes
1answer
300 views

Are conformal, Killing and homothetic vector fields the same in pseudo-riemannian manifolds?

I work in the Lorentzian manifolds, more generally in pseudo Riemannian manifolds and applications to general relativity. I know the definitions of conformal, Killing and homothetic vector fields in ...
0
votes
1answer
907 views

Imaginary part of Poynting vector

When I am studying the total reflection phenomenon, I calculated the Poynting vector of the transmitted wave, which can be written as $S_t=A(k_{x}\hat{x}+i\alpha\hat{z})$ A is some constant. I ...
2
votes
1answer
479 views

Spherical harmonics

Given the following potential: $$V(\theta,\phi)=\frac{Q}{a}\left(\sin\theta \cos\phi+\frac{1}{2}\cos^2\theta\right)$$ on the surface of a sphere of radius $a$ I am trying to solve Laplace's Equation ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How Does Lead Block Radiation

How is it that lead can block radiation, and things are lead lined. In the Indiana Jones 4 movie he climbs inside a lead-lined fridge and he somehow survives the blast and radiation?
1
vote
0answers
597 views

Complex polarizability of a dielectric sphere in a homohenious electric field

It is well known that complex polarizability of uniform dielectric sphere with radius $r$ and complex permittivity $\hat\epsilon_{in}(\omega)$ placed in a medium with complex permittivity ...
2
votes
2answers
253 views

Does the magnetic field lie in the Wave-Particle duality?

There is Wave–particle duality. According to this theory, light is a wave and a particle at once. What about magnetic field? Can it be so, that it is also a wave and particle, but this particle has ...
0
votes
0answers
596 views

Degrees of freedom of the photon in $d=n$

It is well known that in ordinary $4$ dimension, the photon has on shell only two physical degrees of freedom. Physically this means its elicity is either $\lambda=+1$ or $\lambda=-1$ but cannot ...
1
vote
1answer
164 views

Can Massless Particles Have Dimensions? [duplicate]

We have been taught that anything occupying space/volume has mass. Light has both a particle nature-photon and wave nature. Since It has an momentum of h/λ, energy of hc/λ. Since a photon carries ...
-1
votes
2answers
249 views

Compute distance between planes in a crystal

I want to compute the distance between two (111) planes in a cubic crystalline structure, in order to do some computations involving Bragg reflection. I have a sketch of which the (111) planes are, ...
0
votes
2answers
84 views

Spherical coordinate system

I do not understand how is $r^2 = x^2+y^2+z^2$ in spherical coordinate system. Can anybody give a simple derivation? I need to understand this in order to understand the lorentz transformation.
2
votes
2answers
530 views

What is the reason for the electrons in a given subshell to orient in certain preferred regions?

My text book says: "Magnetic quantum number describes the behavior of electron in a magnetic field. We know that the movement of electrical charge is always associated with magnetic field. Since ...
1
vote
1answer
856 views

Do particles ever touch each other during a collision? [duplicate]

Do particles ever touch each other during a collision? My understanding is that they can get really close to each other but never actually touch, is that true? Another thing I've read about is, the ...
5
votes
7answers
2k views

Do centripetal and reactive centrifugal forces cancel each other out?

In order for a body to move with uniform velocity in a circular path, there must exist some force towards the centre of curvature of the circular path. This is centripetal force. By Newton's Third ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Predicting the direction of sound incorrectly? [closed]

When i was sitting outside my house yesterday, I heard a strange sharp sound. I could not point out it's exact direction but apparently looked like coming from left but later my friend told me that an ...
6
votes
1answer
308 views

Gupta-Bleuler Formalism

In the Gupta-Bleuler formalism we have a problem with two states (scalar photons and longitudinal photons), because here $\langle \vec{k}_a|\vec{k}_b\rangle $ is negative or zero. However, I thought ...
2
votes
2answers
88 views

Approximating evolution as occurring in a two-dimensional subspace

Suppose you have a quantum system with a Hamiltonian having some number (greater than 2, possibly infinite) of eigenfunctions, and that the system is prepared in the ground state. When can you ...
3
votes
8answers
3k views

Why does Coulomb's constant have units?

I think of Coulomb's constant as a conversion factor (not sure if this is correct). Kind of like how you would do calculations in kg and then times it by the conversion constant to convert your answer ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

Objects made up of electrons?

Say you have a neutral rod, and you bring a positively charged rod beside it (call the side the charged rod is brought near side A and the other side side B). The electrons from the side B will start ...
4
votes
2answers
6k views

Why do atoms stick together?

The atoms in my table "stick together" to form a rectangle. Why? What makes them stick together? I know about ionic/covalent bonding etc., but consider a sheet of pure iron. Just atoms of one ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Electromagnetism Permittivity simple question

Just a simple question regarding $\epsilon$, the absolute permittivity. I read that it measures the resistance to of certain medium to 'permit' the formation of an electrical field. Does this mean ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

independence of the bare parameters on μ for beta function

So I know re-normalization has bean "beaten to death". I want to understand something a bit specific which might seem trivial. Independence of the bare parameters on $\mu$ and relevance to the beta ...
0
votes
3answers
130 views

How does pressurized gas constantly push?

If a gas, such as hydrogen, is pressurized into an air tight container, a force in terms of pascals (or whatever unit you want to use) is exerted, correct? That is what pushes against every surface ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Roadmap to the Renormalization Group Approach

I am an undergrad interested in HEP-Th. I have studied canonical quantization, and path integral approach for quantizing fields, and the EM field quantization, classical yang-mills theory. I want to ...
1
vote
3answers
87 views

How can you have positive electricity

In a circuit, you have two opposite charges. One would be negative, which would consist of electrons. The other would be positive charge, and protons carry this. But protons aren't mobile, so how does ...
2
votes
2answers
257 views

Physics Standard Deviation

I am a physics enthusiast and I have a question: Why is it meaningless to express the '$\pm$' (standard deviation) value as a percentage?
1
vote
3answers
442 views

How to understand holography and hologram

I've spent some time reading wiki etc. What I get now is that apart from the normal light amplitude information, holograms also record the phase information of light. But this is so difficult for me ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Tensor of inertia

The tensor of inertia of a solid sphere is $I_{ii}=\frac{2}{5}MR^2$ about an axis passing through its CM. Why would the tensor of inertia of each hemisphere about that axis be ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

A simple way to calculate the potential electrical output of a magnet. [closed]

I am a software engineer. This I understand very well. I am attempting to build a prototype with arduino circuits. This I know a little less about. Part of my project requires a electro-magnetic ...
2
votes
3answers
251 views

Physical motivation for differentiation under the integral

I am thinking about the mathematical process of "differentiating underneath the integral", i.e. applying the theorem $$\partial_s \int_{-\infty}^\infty f(x,s)\,dx=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \partial_s ...
-1
votes
2answers
1k views

Fluids and density [closed]

Is the answer C? Assume that you look at three objects that all float on water, but have different shapes and sizes. Which one has the greatest density? A.The object that has the largest fraction of ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Questions on 4-vector velocities and invariance [closed]

Unfortunately, I missed a few lectures on four-vectors and I am pretty confused on how to go about solving the below question. I would be extremely grateful for any responses or solutions to enlighten ...
3
votes
1answer
266 views

Is kinetic energy in QM a state-property or is it distributed?

Suppose we have a quantum mechanical system, which is well described by its wave function in r-representation $\Psi$. We are interested in the properties of an observable, say the kinetic energy $T$. ...
0
votes
1answer
16k views

Dielectric constant or permittivity of metals

I'm wondering what the dielectric constant or permittivity of metals is --particularly copper. Do metals have an infinite permittivity?
3
votes
1answer
153 views

Does wood have only one phase?

I was reading the Knight textbook, which stated in Chapter 16.1 (A Macroscopic Description of Matter) the following: "The notion of three distinct phases is less useful for more complex systems. A ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

$\mathcal{N}=4$ SUSY in $d=3$ versus $\mathcal{N}=2$ in $d=4$

Which is the field content of the hypermultiplet and the vector multiplet in $\mathcal{N}=4 \ d=3$ Supersymmmetry? Is it correct to state that $\mathcal{N}=4$ in $d=3$ has $8$ supercharges, (since ...
3
votes
2answers
939 views

Commutator of $L^2$ and $X^2$, $P^2$

In our quantum mechanics script, it states that $[L^2, X^2] = 0$ and $[L^2, P^2] = 0$, therefore for the following Hamiltonan $$H = \frac{P^2}{2m} + V(X^2)$$ it is that $[H, L^2] = 0$ therefore $H$ ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

Why is pressure always non directional? [duplicate]

While hammering a nail (before it is in the wall) it is pretty evident that the tip of the nail is going to be applying a force directed along th axis of the nail, then why is it said that pressure is ...
2
votes
1answer
150 views

Sign wrong in angular momentum (Quantum Mechanics)

For small angles $\theta$ the rotation along a particular axis $n$ is given by $R(n,\theta)(r)=Id+ \theta (n \times r)+ o(\epsilon)$. Now, the rotation operator in Quantum Mechanics is given by ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Could a spatial filter improve a heterodyne signal?

Consider two beams of light at slightly difference frequencies that are interfered at a detector. The signal of interest is contained in the phase of the observed signal. As the beams travel around ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

concept of density in gravitational lensing

I may just be being very dense (no pun intended) but i'm reading up on gravitational lensing and it seems to require a notion of density (e.g. see here) I'm working on a question involving light ...
2
votes
1answer
566 views

Why do we use the complexification of the Lorentz group?

I do understand why we are using the double cover, but why exactly do we make the transition to complex Lorentz transformations? Where and why are they needed? To be precise: The double cover of ...
2
votes
0answers
368 views

Double slit experiment and entanglement

Just wondering, what would happen in this experiment. In the experiment you would first have two entangled particles. Then you fire one of the particles, lets say "Particle A", at a double slit ...
4
votes
1answer
467 views

How do I calculate the experimental uncertainty in a function of two measured quantities

I am performing an experiment where I'm measuring two variables, say $x$ and $y$, but I'm actually interested in a third variable which I calculate from those two, $$z=f(x,y).$$ In my experiment, of ...

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