1
vote
1answer
108 views

independence of the bare parameters on μ for beta function

So I know re-normalization has bean "beaten to death". I want to understand something a bit specific which might seem trivial. Independence of the bare parameters on $\mu$ and relevance to the beta ...
0
votes
3answers
129 views

How does pressurized gas constantly push?

If a gas, such as hydrogen, is pressurized into an air tight container, a force in terms of pascals (or whatever unit you want to use) is exerted, correct? That is what pushes against every surface ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Roadmap to the Renormalization Group Approach

I am an undergrad interested in HEP-Th. I have studied canonical quantization, and path integral approach for quantizing fields, and the EM field quantization, classical yang-mills theory. I want to ...
1
vote
3answers
87 views

How can you have positive electricity

In a circuit, you have two opposite charges. One would be negative, which would consist of electrons. The other would be positive charge, and protons carry this. But protons aren't mobile, so how does ...
2
votes
2answers
257 views

Physics Standard Deviation

I am a physics enthusiast and I have a question: Why is it meaningless to express the '$\pm$' (standard deviation) value as a percentage?
1
vote
3answers
442 views

How to understand holography and hologram

I've spent some time reading wiki etc. What I get now is that apart from the normal light amplitude information, holograms also record the phase information of light. But this is so difficult for me ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Tensor of inertia

The tensor of inertia of a solid sphere is $I_{ii}=\frac{2}{5}MR^2$ about an axis passing through its CM. Why would the tensor of inertia of each hemisphere about that axis be ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

A simple way to calculate the potential electrical output of a magnet. [closed]

I am a software engineer. This I understand very well. I am attempting to build a prototype with arduino circuits. This I know a little less about. Part of my project requires a electro-magnetic ...
2
votes
3answers
251 views

Physical motivation for differentiation under the integral

I am thinking about the mathematical process of "differentiating underneath the integral", i.e. applying the theorem $$\partial_s \int_{-\infty}^\infty f(x,s)\,dx=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \partial_s ...
-1
votes
2answers
1k views

Fluids and density [closed]

Is the answer C? Assume that you look at three objects that all float on water, but have different shapes and sizes. Which one has the greatest density? A.The object that has the largest fraction of ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Questions on 4-vector velocities and invariance [closed]

Unfortunately, I missed a few lectures on four-vectors and I am pretty confused on how to go about solving the below question. I would be extremely grateful for any responses or solutions to enlighten ...
3
votes
1answer
266 views

Is kinetic energy in QM a state-property or is it distributed?

Suppose we have a quantum mechanical system, which is well described by its wave function in r-representation $\Psi$. We are interested in the properties of an observable, say the kinetic energy $T$. ...
0
votes
1answer
16k views

Dielectric constant or permittivity of metals

I'm wondering what the dielectric constant or permittivity of metals is --particularly copper. Do metals have an infinite permittivity?
3
votes
1answer
153 views

Does wood have only one phase?

I was reading the Knight textbook, which stated in Chapter 16.1 (A Macroscopic Description of Matter) the following: "The notion of three distinct phases is less useful for more complex systems. A ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

$\mathcal{N}=4$ SUSY in $d=3$ versus $\mathcal{N}=2$ in $d=4$

Which is the field content of the hypermultiplet and the vector multiplet in $\mathcal{N}=4 \ d=3$ Supersymmmetry? Is it correct to state that $\mathcal{N}=4$ in $d=3$ has $8$ supercharges, (since ...
3
votes
2answers
934 views

Commutator of $L^2$ and $X^2$, $P^2$

In our quantum mechanics script, it states that $[L^2, X^2] = 0$ and $[L^2, P^2] = 0$, therefore for the following Hamiltonan $$H = \frac{P^2}{2m} + V(X^2)$$ it is that $[H, L^2] = 0$ therefore $H$ ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

Why is pressure always non directional? [duplicate]

While hammering a nail (before it is in the wall) it is pretty evident that the tip of the nail is going to be applying a force directed along th axis of the nail, then why is it said that pressure is ...
2
votes
1answer
150 views

Sign wrong in angular momentum (Quantum Mechanics)

For small angles $\theta$ the rotation along a particular axis $n$ is given by $R(n,\theta)(r)=Id+ \theta (n \times r)+ o(\epsilon)$. Now, the rotation operator in Quantum Mechanics is given by ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Could a spatial filter improve a heterodyne signal?

Consider two beams of light at slightly difference frequencies that are interfered at a detector. The signal of interest is contained in the phase of the observed signal. As the beams travel around ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

concept of density in gravitational lensing

I may just be being very dense (no pun intended) but i'm reading up on gravitational lensing and it seems to require a notion of density (e.g. see here) I'm working on a question involving light ...
2
votes
1answer
565 views

Why do we use the complexification of the Lorentz group?

I do understand why we are using the double cover, but why exactly do we make the transition to complex Lorentz transformations? Where and why are they needed? To be precise: The double cover of ...
2
votes
0answers
368 views

Double slit experiment and entanglement

Just wondering, what would happen in this experiment. In the experiment you would first have two entangled particles. Then you fire one of the particles, lets say "Particle A", at a double slit ...
4
votes
1answer
467 views

How do I calculate the experimental uncertainty in a function of two measured quantities

I am performing an experiment where I'm measuring two variables, say $x$ and $y$, but I'm actually interested in a third variable which I calculate from those two, $$z=f(x,y).$$ In my experiment, of ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Diffraction from interatomic spacing

In diffraction from a single slit, we learn that the angular width of the central maxima, is given by $2\sin^{-1}\frac \lambda d$. For $d\approx \lambda$, the incoming wavefront should be spread to ...
1
vote
1answer
5k views

What is happening to rotational kinetic energy when moment of inertia is changed?

I know this question is asked here a lot, but I just had to ask this to finalise the concept. When a system lets say a rod of length $L$ and mass $M$ is rotating with angular speed $omega_1$ its ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Does AC current produce EM waves?

Does AC current in simple wires produce electromagnetic waves? AC current entails very rapid changes in polarity and therefore the electrons in the metal will feel rapidly changing forces which should ...
4
votes
0answers
371 views

Squashed 3-sphere?

What is a squashed 3-sphere? In context of quantum gravity. I stumbled upon a term 'squashed 7 sphere' but that's concerning supersymmetry. Is it just normal 3-sphere metric, that is just 'squashed' ...
0
votes
2answers
108 views

Simulating diffusion from bulk to individual particles

I have a 2 compartment simulation. The first compartment simulates reactions using ODEs. The second compartment uses Brownian motion. I want to be able to have molecules from the ODE compartment ...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Rydberg quasimolecules & stark states?

I found this image : on the internet and I traced it back to this article ,I wanted to use it as part of an architectural visualization for my project(architecture) but for this to happen I need to ...
4
votes
2answers
5k views

Where does a spinning figure skater's energy go when she slows down?

Today in physics class we were talking about angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy. My teacher used the classic example of a figure skater spinning on ice - when she pulls her arms in, her ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

Error conversion [closed]

$\alpha_L = \frac{1}{a}\frac{da}{dT}$ I know error in $a$, i.e., $da$ I need to find out $d\alpha$ from data of $da$. $d\alpha_L = -\frac{1}{a^2}\frac{da}{dT}da$ Is this correct? Note: ...
3
votes
1answer
692 views

Lorentz force equation from relativistic Lagrangian

The relativistic Lagrangian is given by $$L = - m_0 c^2 \sqrt{1 - \frac{u^2}{c^2}} + \frac{q}{c} (\vec u \cdot \vec A) - q \Phi $$ I need to derive, $\displaystyle \frac{d\vec p}{dt} = q \left( \vec E ...
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Do we still need Newtonian G in General Relativity?

I believe we can use Newtonian Physics to make incredibly good predictions about the movement of celestial bodies as long as they are not too fast/massive and there are only two of them (well, we can ...
0
votes
2answers
179 views

Why can't I calculate center of mass via torque? Results off by a few percent

Why do I keep getting a slightly different result from the following two ways of determining the center of mass of a rigid, geometrically simple object? The object is a rectangular 5(x) by 7(y) ...
8
votes
3answers
999 views

Where does the kinetic energy go?

A uniform cylinder was placed on a frictionless bearing and set to rotate about its vertical axis. After a cylinder has reached a specific state of rotation it is heated without any mechanical support ...
0
votes
1answer
217 views

How to calculate fluid(oil / hydrocarbon) loss under pressure

I'm trying to calculate the amount of fluid that would flow through an area dependant on the amount of pressure that there is. I'd also like to know the rate at which it would flow. Essentially I ...
0
votes
1answer
607 views

Difference: Fermi wave length vs. phase-breaking length?

I am reading a quantum transport book, where they often mention: phase breaking length and Fermi wavelength. I have looked up and found that: Phase breaking length= length over which electron remains ...
0
votes
1answer
111 views

Relativistic momentum and mass [duplicate]

Is there even a relativistic mass or just relativistic momentum? How does one reason to prefer one over another? What is the problem with saying a hot gas will have more mass/inertia to it?
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Problem understanding a step in derivation of Lorentz Transformation

I need to understand a step in the derivation of Lorentz Transformation. I cannot understand how can we equate the equations 1 and 2. I am talking about the relation between ct, x, y, z. Where ...
0
votes
2answers
82 views

Fixed lever arm spinning under gravity, why am I getting these results?

Suppose there is a lever arm of length $L$, a mass $m$, and it is fixed at one end. The lever is parallel to the ground. So the force acting on the center of mass of the lever would be $mg$. Now ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

What's an atomic superstate/superposition, and how is it possible?

What's an atomic superstate/superposition, and how is it possible? I understand the basics - being something can be moving and staying still at the same time; the observer changes the behaviour - but ...
3
votes
2answers
189 views

Synchronisation of clocks

How can two clocks be synchronised with each other at some instant without being at the same place and same time $?$ considering that simultaneity is a relative concept .
0
votes
1answer
189 views

Twin paradox an simultaneity [duplicate]

Suppose there are two observers A & B, separated in space and one is moving towards the other. Their clocks were somehow synchronised at the beginning meaning they both started from $0$ or just ...
2
votes
2answers
245 views

Recovering 4-vector Lorentz transformation from spinor formalism

I'm trying to recover the 4-vector transformation laws using spinors. I have defined $$v^{\dot{a}b} = v^{\nu} \sigma_{\nu}^{\dot{a}b}$$ as usual, with $\sigma_0=1$. Now with the rules for dotted ...
1
vote
2answers
284 views

Does an object on top of a lever arm have angular velocity at the moment when the lever is released?

Suppose there is a lever arm fixed at one end, and it is parallel to the ground. There is an object resting somewhere on top of the lever arm (the object is not attached to the lever). At the moment ...
0
votes
2answers
303 views

is action integral Lorentz invariant?

I need to find the Lagrangian for charged particles in EM fields considering relativistic effects. Is action integral Lorentz invariant. $$A = \int_{t_1}^{t_2} L (q_i, \dot q_i, t) dt $$ According ...
0
votes
0answers
76 views

What is the probability that all the air ends up in the upper right corner of the room and we suffocate

Since someone commented this on this question(What is the probability of ice in boiling water?), I would like to ask what is the probability that all the air ends up in the upper right corner of the ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Separating the convective and the inductive electric field

My question is basically this, if I am only able to measure the total electric field and the magnetic field at a few discrete points in space and time, is it possible to separate the convective and ...
2
votes
1answer
220 views

CNOT gate broken in 2 different quantum simulators? Or am I wrong?

My understanding is that the control qubit in a controlled-not gate remains unchanged after the controlled-not operation is performed on a target-qubit (so the Pauli-X gate is performed only on the ...
4
votes
2answers
269 views

How is the classical EM field modeled in quantum mechanics?

On the one hand, classical electromagnetism tells us that light is a propagating wave in the electromagnetic field, caused by accelerating charges. Then comes quantum mechanics and says that light ...

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