2
votes
0answers
341 views

What is wrong with this downforce calculcation?

I tried calculating the downforce of a spoiler I need for a robot. I used this formula. $$F = \frac{1}{2}Ac_a\rho v^2$$ Where $\rho$ is air density, $v$ is the speed of my robot, $c_a$ is the lift ...
0
votes
5answers
643 views

What generates such a huge amount of gravitational attraction in a black hole?

I had been fascinated to hear that anything can be swallowed by a black hole. But what causes such a huge amount of gravitational force?
2
votes
3answers
3k views

Finite potential well problem - calculating the ground state

1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Electron of is in a 1-D potential well of depth $20eV$ width $d=0.2 nm$ in his ground state $N=1$. What is the energy of the ground ...
4
votes
1answer
424 views

What do you call the period after sunrise when the sky is bright?

At sunrise, the sky isn't actually up in the sky yet. Twilight occurs before sunrise, then at sunrise the leading part of the sun crosses the horizon. But, the sky isn't bright yet. It takes some time ...
0
votes
0answers
179 views

Measuring a quantity using two measuring devices

I would like to ask how I can reduce uncertainty by designing an experiment. I need to measure a quantity( say speed, in m/s). I have to calibrate the device and then move the device to measure ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Projectile Motion Question involving a ball and a ramp inclined at an angle

The question is to finde the initial horizontal velocity of the ball at end of the ramp, where it is released. I know how to do this using gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy ...
3
votes
2answers
147 views

Colors of light

White light is always said to contain all the different wavelengths of light. Why, then, can we 'make' new colors simply by adding wavelengths? Is it just a matter of our perception, that, when two ...
7
votes
3answers
1k views

Born's Rule, What is the Reason? [duplicate]

As far as I've read online, there isn't a good explanation for the Born Rule. Is this the case? Why does taking the square of the wave function give you the Probability? Naturally it removes negatives ...
0
votes
1answer
235 views

Wave packets Group Velocity

For the the group velocity of a wave packet, the group velocity is the partial derivative of omega with respect to the wavenumber, what does this mean? I thought that for some given wave packet both ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Physical difference between Lorenz and Coulomb gauge-fixing conditions

Lorenz and Coulomb gauge-fixing conditions. What is physical difference between these two gauge-fixing conditions? Mathematical expression are clear but how to we choose one of these means what they ...
3
votes
1answer
415 views

How to introduce the electromagnetic field in Quantum Field Theory?

There are many ways to introduce the electromagnrtic field in Quantum Field Theory(QFT), such as canonical quantization method which introduces the creation and annihilation oprators by treating the ...
7
votes
4answers
894 views

Church-Turing hypothesis as a fundamental law of physics

The Church-Turing hypothesis says one can not build a computing device which has more computing power (in terms of computability) than the abstract model of Turing machine. So, there is something in ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

Red shift and the expanding universe

Given that the universe is expanding because space itself is expanding, is that expansion occuring in all places and on all scales? Consider a photon emitted from a source billions of years ago. As it ...
6
votes
1answer
336 views

Fundamental Higgs vs. pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson: experimental fingerprints

If we consider the 126 Higgs-like boson as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, what are the experimental fingerprints of that case? What are the main differences, in a purely effective field theory ...
0
votes
1answer
155 views

$d=\frac{1}{2}at^2$ not giving expected results

Say I have an object that starts falling from rest at 2 m/s2. Its total displacement and velocity at the end of every second should look something like this: ...
1
vote
2answers
249 views

How to superpose an wavefunction for an infinite potential well / interval - $-d/2 <x<d/2$

I know that two functions which describe the state of a particle in an infinite square (on interval $-d/2<x<d/2$) well are like: \begin{align} \psi_{even}&= ...
3
votes
0answers
88 views

what is the radial extent of the last scattering “shell”?

At CMB recombination (z=1090), what is the radial extent of the last scattering "shell"? a) Delta(z) = .... b) Delta(comoving angular distance)= ....Mpc The WMAP first-year parameters give Delta(z) ...
0
votes
1answer
312 views

On the atomic level, how is incandescent light structured?

I want to know from the smallest possible originating structures how the light I see generated from heat is made by atoms themselves.
1
vote
0answers
280 views

Good place/supervisor for PhD in Theory of Condensed matter [closed]

I am currently finishing my undegraduate degree in physics and would like to do PhD in Theory of Condensed Matter field. Could you give advice on which are good groups/supervisors in the field. ...
7
votes
2answers
161 views

What's going on along the “sides” of an Alcubierre warp bubble?

The models/depictions I've seen of warp bubbles show space compressed ahead of the bubble and expanded behind, so that the space inside the bubble moves with respect to the space outside. If that is ...
0
votes
1answer
281 views

General Relativity and the effect of mass on time [duplicate]

My question is related to the first page of this article regarding the big bang theory and refers to this specific sentence: Armed with the best physics of the 20th century, Albert Einstein came ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

Interaction of external light or matter and an Alcubierre warp bubble

For a hypothetical vehicle traveling in an Alcubierre bubble at faster-than-light (FTL) velocities, what would happen when the leading edge of the bubble encounters incident particles or photons? ...
2
votes
2answers
182 views

A question for the generalization of gauge transformation with two antisymmetric indices

I have a question about the generalization of gauge transformation with two antisymmetric indices. Starting from Eq. (3.7.6) in Polchinski's string theory book p. 108. $$S_{\sigma} = \frac{1}{4 \pi ...
4
votes
1answer
412 views

Lorentz group and classification of fields by their transformation under Lorentz transformations

Let's have Lorentz group with generators of 3-rotations, $\hat {R}_{i}$, and Lorentz boosts, $\hat {L}_{i}$. By introducing operators $\hat {J}_{i} = \frac{1}{2}\left(\hat {R}_{i} + i\hat ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

How do I know the proton isn't made of 3 anti-down quarks?

I have a proton, how do I know that it is made of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark or if it is made of 3 anti-down quarks, each with different color charges? This question is also applicable to the ...
1
vote
0answers
135 views

C Method for Diffraction grating

Alright, so I am trying to find the efficiencies of a coated diffraction grating through the method in this paper. This is through a change of coordinate system. So I went through and derived all of ...
2
votes
0answers
193 views

Bose-Einstein condensation in 3D

I have read in many books that BEC takes place in momentum space and in only 3-dimensions. What is meant by this statement?
1
vote
2answers
367 views

Why does the guy moving on spaceship look younger in twin paradox?

If there is no particular absolute choice of frame of reference, the guy who sits on Earth is also moving away from the guy on spaceship perspective and hence time on Earth should also dilate when ...
19
votes
2answers
1k views

Gravitational slingshot of light using a black hole/massive object

Wikipedia has this page on gravity assists using planets. In some cases this effect was used to accelerate the spacecraft to a higher velocity. This diagram shows this in a very oversimplified manner. ...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Simulation of an one dimensional driven diffusive system [closed]

I'm currently writing a simulation in python with scipy and matplotlib to reproduce an one dimensional driven diffusive system described in this paper from M.R. Evans et al. The system consists of ...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

Why stars twinkle but planets don't? [duplicate]

I am not from a physics background. I came to know this while studying probability? Is this because the planets are nearer than the stars so we get average behaviour rather than random. Is law of ...
2
votes
0answers
429 views

What are the basic postulates of string theory? [closed]

I read the Popular Science books, The Brief history of time (Hawking), The fabric of the cosmos (Greene), and The Grand Design (Hawking), etc. but did could not manage to understand what string ...
1
vote
1answer
977 views

Orthogonality of the wavefunctions on an subinterval?

Lets say that functions (eigenfunctions) $\psi_0$ and $\psi_1$ are orthogonal on an interval $-d/2 < x < d/2$. Are they also orthogonal on any subinterval inside the interval $-d/2 < x < ...
5
votes
2answers
226 views

Celestial Time-Keeping and Navigation

Say, for sake of argument, someone was randomly transported in time and space. Would it be possible for them to determine their location on Earth and the current time using just observations of the ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Why does a glass breaks when subject to very sharp sound like in opera?

I have seen in Ripleys believe it or not that an opera singer generates a very high frequency of sound and breaks a glass window.How do they do it?
1
vote
1answer
258 views

Why is there a sharp cracking sound when we break a plastic ruler?

Why is there a sharp cracking sound when we break a plastic ruler? The question appears to be simple and common but I need a apropriate answer.
1
vote
0answers
126 views

Wave Particle duality because of discrete time?

If time is discrete, such as the Planck's length, would the transition from one frame of time to the next explain why it appears matter changes from a particle to a wave? During that infinitely small ...
1
vote
1answer
391 views

Unitary transformations in mixed discrete-continuous representations

I am having trouble with the unitary transformation of a certain Hamiltonian in the paper Zhai, H. Spin-orbit coupled quantum gases. Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 26 no. 1, 1230001 (2012). arXiv:1110.6798 ...
3
votes
0answers
158 views

Topological quantum computation : Anyon model

Could someone tell me about Frobenius-Schur indicator and the associated cups and caps notation in context of anyon model. One possible reference could be Parsa Bonderson thesis which is freely ...
0
votes
1answer
3k views

Finding the Center of pressure of a body immersed in liquid

I came across some problems related to finding the center of pressure. Please guide me how to go about them. Posting them all so that I can find out the intricacies involved when there are so many ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Pauli matrices as measurement operators

I am trying to understand a paper on the Bell test experiments. I understand that if we wanted to measure the spin of a spin-1/2 particle in state $\psi$ along the z-axis we would apply the operator ...
3
votes
2answers
391 views

Imaginary time?

If we begin with the equation for time dilation: $$ \Delta t^\prime = \frac{\Delta t}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}} $$ Now, for a particle moving in space with no potential energy, $$ E = \frac{1}{2} ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Nuclear Fission and Fusion [duplicate]

I've read several other answers on here, but I still don't understand. Why do both fission and fusion release energy? I know the masses drop, but then why do the masses drop on both? Fusion is taking ...
2
votes
2answers
438 views

Why is the Higgs boson created so infrequently at the CERN collider?

Although each collision at CERN has the available energy to create a Higgs boson each time, the vast majority of the time it does not create one. I suspect that part of the reason for this is that ...
9
votes
2answers
794 views

Is everything made of massless particles?

Photons have no mass. Yet they interact gravitationally, as all energy does, with other energetic and massive particles. This means that if you put multiple photons in a system, you get something that ...
0
votes
3answers
842 views

Conservation of Angular Momentum, as related to a flywheel

Trying to work out some pesky flywheel dynamics for a project I'm working on, would love some for your assistance to better understand the underlying concepts. For a given flywheel (thin-walled ...
2
votes
0answers
111 views

Is a “supercritical charge” in graphene similar to Hawking Radiation?

These papers describe a phenomenon referred to as "atomic collapse" and "supercritical charge" in graphene: Wang et al., Pereira et al. "Atomic collapse" appears when you have a large enough Coulomb ...
0
votes
2answers
618 views

Law of conservation of energy and kinetic energy: deformation of a spring [closed]

Problem: A block B of 1,5 kg is attached to the right of a spring (not deformed, with its right side attach to a wall) with a constant of $k = 80 N/m$ and, at rest, the block enter in collision with ...
4
votes
1answer
727 views

Ephemeris calculations: Light time correction of the moon

I am currently trying to calculate apparent positions from raw JPL data. I've got it pretty much figured out, but there is one thing that's bugging me: Has the light time correction of the moon to be ...
0
votes
1answer
208 views

How do we measure a quantum system properties? (length, mass and time) [closed]

How do we measure a quantum particle properties? (length, mass and time)

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