2
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is the blue color of sky darker in high altitude regions?

I read that as the air density is lower at high altitudes, the scattering is less, hence the darker blue but then other colors are scattering lesser than blue, why don't we see a darker shade of the ...
0
votes
1answer
306 views

Moment around a point in a frame

Note: Both diagrams are 2d(they might look 3d because I drew them manually.) I have a prismatic frame that looks like this: I made a section on the half of the first pillar(the red line represents the ...
1
vote
2answers
283 views

Beam power and electric field after a beam splitter

Consider a beam with power $P_1$ and electric field amplitude $E_{01}$. It is sent through a 50/50 beam splitter that produces beams with power $P_2=P_3=P_1/2$. What are the electric field amplitudes ...
4
votes
2answers
122 views

What is going on with star's energy?

The sun radiates $3.8 × 10^{26} J$ energy each second, this energy is absorbed by various celestial objects but most of it is reflected or emitted back in the space, similarly there must be energy ...
1
vote
0answers
114 views

Ricci scalar higher dimensions

I was wondering if there is a straightforward way to compute the Ricci curvature of a metric that has the form (à la Kaluza-Klein): $g_{MM}\equiv\begin{pmatrix}g_{\mu\nu}&g_{\mu ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

What form of energy is released in $E = mc^2$?

In the famous mass energy equivalence $ E = mc^2$ whenever any form of mass, lets say mass defect in nuclear reactions or any other example of mass is converted to Energy, the released energy is in ...
3
votes
4answers
438 views

Why doesn't Newton's Second Law include higher-order mass?

I suspect this has been asked here before, but I didn't find anything using Search. Why is Newton's second law only second-order in position? For instance, could there exist higher-order masses $m_i$ ...
6
votes
1answer
126 views

In which field theories with fermions do string- and fivebrane structures not come up?

A year ago, username @Greg Graviton asked in a thread here about the Spin group as covering of the spatial rotations. A subquestion was: What other groups, even larger than SU(2) are there that ...
5
votes
2answers
149 views

Can a revolving body self-gravitate?

If a body is revolving around a point at radius R with tangential velocity V, does General Relativity predict that at some tangential speed, the body will revolve around the point without any external ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Speed of light's relation with the expansion of the universe [duplicate]

If nothing can travel at the speed of light and light cannot escape the universe, then the rate of expansion of the universe should be equal to the speed of light, why it is not?
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Surface charge density relation with the radius of curvature at the surface of a conductor [closed]

In a text book it was given that the surface charge density of a conductor at a particular region on its surface is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature at that region. I didn't ...
2
votes
0answers
115 views

Geometric quantization in Kepler problem in hydrogen atom

Why in the usual geometric quantization calculation the dimensions of eigenspaces is wrong (we can see this obstacle for Kepler problem in hydrogen atom). Here is a refference see
3
votes
1answer
298 views

Transmission + Reflection coefficients >1 For Potencial Barrier with Negative Complex Part Contradicts Paper

I am studying reflection and transmission coefficients for a barrier consisting of a a step potencial defined by: $$V(x):=\begin{cases}0&{\rm if}\,|x|>a/2 \\ V_0+iW_0 & {\rm ...
0
votes
0answers
753 views

Classical regime for Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein gases

I'm studying statistical mechanics, in particular classical regime for Fermi Dirac and Bose Einstein gases. Time average value for occupation numbers in FDBE statistics: $$ \langle ...
6
votes
3answers
233 views

Are there any Meson colliders?

There are no stable mesons as far as I know. Are there any meson-colliders analogous to for example proton-proton colliders? Edit: This edit was made more than a year after the original question was ...
3
votes
1answer
183 views

Is boson sampling a problem in 'continuous variable' quantum information?

When people generally speak of quantum information in the context of continuous variables, what is generally meant is that observables, like position/momentum or the field quadratures of quantum ...
6
votes
1answer
300 views

Are conformal, Killing and homothetic vector fields the same in pseudo-riemannian manifolds?

I work in the Lorentzian manifolds, more generally in pseudo Riemannian manifolds and applications to general relativity. I know the definitions of conformal, Killing and homothetic vector fields in ...
0
votes
1answer
904 views

Imaginary part of Poynting vector

When I am studying the total reflection phenomenon, I calculated the Poynting vector of the transmitted wave, which can be written as $S_t=A(k_{x}\hat{x}+i\alpha\hat{z})$ A is some constant. I ...
2
votes
1answer
479 views

Spherical harmonics

Given the following potential: $$V(\theta,\phi)=\frac{Q}{a}\left(\sin\theta \cos\phi+\frac{1}{2}\cos^2\theta\right)$$ on the surface of a sphere of radius $a$ I am trying to solve Laplace's Equation ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How Does Lead Block Radiation

How is it that lead can block radiation, and things are lead lined. In the Indiana Jones 4 movie he climbs inside a lead-lined fridge and he somehow survives the blast and radiation?
1
vote
0answers
593 views

Complex polarizability of a dielectric sphere in a homohenious electric field

It is well known that complex polarizability of uniform dielectric sphere with radius $r$ and complex permittivity $\hat\epsilon_{in}(\omega)$ placed in a medium with complex permittivity ...
2
votes
2answers
252 views

Does the magnetic field lie in the Wave-Particle duality?

There is Wave–particle duality. According to this theory, light is a wave and a particle at once. What about magnetic field? Can it be so, that it is also a wave and particle, but this particle has ...
0
votes
0answers
595 views

Degrees of freedom of the photon in $d=n$

It is well known that in ordinary $4$ dimension, the photon has on shell only two physical degrees of freedom. Physically this means its elicity is either $\lambda=+1$ or $\lambda=-1$ but cannot ...
1
vote
1answer
163 views

Can Massless Particles Have Dimensions? [duplicate]

We have been taught that anything occupying space/volume has mass. Light has both a particle nature-photon and wave nature. Since It has an momentum of h/λ, energy of hc/λ. Since a photon carries ...
-1
votes
2answers
249 views

Compute distance between planes in a crystal

I want to compute the distance between two (111) planes in a cubic crystalline structure, in order to do some computations involving Bragg reflection. I have a sketch of which the (111) planes are, ...
0
votes
2answers
84 views

Spherical coordinate system

I do not understand how is $r^2 = x^2+y^2+z^2$ in spherical coordinate system. Can anybody give a simple derivation? I need to understand this in order to understand the lorentz transformation.
2
votes
2answers
530 views

What is the reason for the electrons in a given subshell to orient in certain preferred regions?

My text book says: "Magnetic quantum number describes the behavior of electron in a magnetic field. We know that the movement of electrical charge is always associated with magnetic field. Since ...
1
vote
1answer
856 views

Do particles ever touch each other during a collision? [duplicate]

Do particles ever touch each other during a collision? My understanding is that they can get really close to each other but never actually touch, is that true? Another thing I've read about is, the ...
5
votes
7answers
2k views

Do centripetal and reactive centrifugal forces cancel each other out?

In order for a body to move with uniform velocity in a circular path, there must exist some force towards the centre of curvature of the circular path. This is centripetal force. By Newton's Third ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Predicting the direction of sound incorrectly? [closed]

When i was sitting outside my house yesterday, I heard a strange sharp sound. I could not point out it's exact direction but apparently looked like coming from left but later my friend told me that an ...
6
votes
1answer
307 views

Gupta-Bleuler Formalism

In the Gupta-Bleuler formalism we have a problem with two states (scalar photons and longitudinal photons), because here $\langle \vec{k}_a|\vec{k}_b\rangle $ is negative or zero. However, I thought ...
2
votes
2answers
88 views

Approximating evolution as occurring in a two-dimensional subspace

Suppose you have a quantum system with a Hamiltonian having some number (greater than 2, possibly infinite) of eigenfunctions, and that the system is prepared in the ground state. When can you ...
3
votes
8answers
3k views

Why does Coulomb's constant have units?

I think of Coulomb's constant as a conversion factor (not sure if this is correct). Kind of like how you would do calculations in kg and then times it by the conversion constant to convert your answer ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

Objects made up of electrons?

Say you have a neutral rod, and you bring a positively charged rod beside it (call the side the charged rod is brought near side A and the other side side B). The electrons from the side B will start ...
4
votes
2answers
6k views

Why do atoms stick together?

The atoms in my table "stick together" to form a rectangle. Why? What makes them stick together? I know about ionic/covalent bonding etc., but consider a sheet of pure iron. Just atoms of one ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Electromagnetism Permittivity simple question

Just a simple question regarding $\epsilon$, the absolute permittivity. I read that it measures the resistance to of certain medium to 'permit' the formation of an electrical field. Does this mean ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

independence of the bare parameters on μ for beta function

So I know re-normalization has bean "beaten to death". I want to understand something a bit specific which might seem trivial. Independence of the bare parameters on $\mu$ and relevance to the beta ...
0
votes
3answers
129 views

How does pressurized gas constantly push?

If a gas, such as hydrogen, is pressurized into an air tight container, a force in terms of pascals (or whatever unit you want to use) is exerted, correct? That is what pushes against every surface ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Roadmap to the Renormalization Group Approach

I am an undergrad interested in HEP-Th. I have studied canonical quantization, and path integral approach for quantizing fields, and the EM field quantization, classical yang-mills theory. I want to ...
1
vote
3answers
87 views

How can you have positive electricity

In a circuit, you have two opposite charges. One would be negative, which would consist of electrons. The other would be positive charge, and protons carry this. But protons aren't mobile, so how does ...
2
votes
2answers
257 views

Physics Standard Deviation

I am a physics enthusiast and I have a question: Why is it meaningless to express the '$\pm$' (standard deviation) value as a percentage?
1
vote
3answers
442 views

How to understand holography and hologram

I've spent some time reading wiki etc. What I get now is that apart from the normal light amplitude information, holograms also record the phase information of light. But this is so difficult for me ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Tensor of inertia

The tensor of inertia of a solid sphere is $I_{ii}=\frac{2}{5}MR^2$ about an axis passing through its CM. Why would the tensor of inertia of each hemisphere about that axis be ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

A simple way to calculate the potential electrical output of a magnet. [closed]

I am a software engineer. This I understand very well. I am attempting to build a prototype with arduino circuits. This I know a little less about. Part of my project requires a electro-magnetic ...
2
votes
3answers
251 views

Physical motivation for differentiation under the integral

I am thinking about the mathematical process of "differentiating underneath the integral", i.e. applying the theorem $$\partial_s \int_{-\infty}^\infty f(x,s)\,dx=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \partial_s ...
-1
votes
2answers
1k views

Fluids and density [closed]

Is the answer C? Assume that you look at three objects that all float on water, but have different shapes and sizes. Which one has the greatest density? A.The object that has the largest fraction of ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Questions on 4-vector velocities and invariance [closed]

Unfortunately, I missed a few lectures on four-vectors and I am pretty confused on how to go about solving the below question. I would be extremely grateful for any responses or solutions to enlighten ...
3
votes
1answer
266 views

Is kinetic energy in QM a state-property or is it distributed?

Suppose we have a quantum mechanical system, which is well described by its wave function in r-representation $\Psi$. We are interested in the properties of an observable, say the kinetic energy $T$. ...
0
votes
1answer
16k views

Dielectric constant or permittivity of metals

I'm wondering what the dielectric constant or permittivity of metals is --particularly copper. Do metals have an infinite permittivity?
3
votes
1answer
153 views

Does wood have only one phase?

I was reading the Knight textbook, which stated in Chapter 16.1 (A Macroscopic Description of Matter) the following: "The notion of three distinct phases is less useful for more complex systems. A ...

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