1
vote
1answer
7k views

What makes water boil?

Basically how boiling takes place? Also like to know... What makes boiling point alter at various altitudes? Why bubbles rise through boiling water?
44
votes
4answers
67k views

Why do grapes in a microwave oven produce plasma?

Some of you may know this experience (Grape + Microwave oven = Plasma video link): take a grape that you almost split in two parts, letting just a tiny piece of skin making a link between each ...
1
vote
1answer
361 views

Relativistic Doppler effect

If i have 2 coordinate systems (CS) which are travelling one towards another. CS $xy$ with an observer in its origin and CS $x'y'$ with a source in its origin. Correct me if I am wrong, but i think ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Why is work defined as force dot displacement?

Why is work defined as force dot displacement? I know that it is defined like that based on the observational fact - we do more work when we apply greater force or move to a greater distance. But I ...
3
votes
2answers
416 views

What are the solution spaces of Nonlinear Schrödinger equations?

As we know, the solution space of Schrödinger equation is a Hilbert space, however, what about it of Nonlinear Schrödinger equations such as $$i\partial_t\psi=-{1\over ...
3
votes
1answer
694 views

Why doesn't the Klein-Gordon equation allow for conservation of probability?

I read somewhere that the Klein-Gordon equation doesn't allow for conservation of probability. Can someone prove this mathematically?
1
vote
1answer
200 views

Is quantum Hall current density local? (${\bf j}({\bf r}) = \sigma_H {\bf \hat n \times E}({\bf r}) $)

The good old Ohm's law $${\bf j}({\bf r}) = \sigma_O {\bf E}({\bf r})$$ if translated into words would be "the local current density is proportional to a local electric field." In a quantum Hall ...
4
votes
3answers
11k views

Why can't light pass through walls but sound can?

When I sit in a room I can hear voices coming from the adjacent room but the light in adjacent room does not enter my room i.e. sound waves travels through the wall but light waves can't. Why?
7
votes
4answers
878 views

Are covariant vectors representable as row vectors and contravariant as column vectors

I would like to know what are the range of validity of the following statement: Covariant vectors are representable as row vectors. Contravariant vectors are representable as column vectors. ...
0
votes
1answer
273 views

Electrical Resistance and chemistry

Can some one describe or explain what happens when too much current is passed through lets say a copper wire, I am looking for an explanation to do with physics and chemistry. For instance we have ...
3
votes
2answers
155 views

On non-local physics in cosmology by prof. B.V. Alekseev

Recently I've encountered work by prof. B.V. Alekseev, in which he claims that some physical problems can be easily solved if we consider non-local interactions in kinetic theory (interactions of ...
0
votes
2answers
588 views

Precession of angular velocity about the body-fixed axis

My textbook mentions that under force-free motion of a symmetric top, its angular velocity vector $\overrightarrow \omega$ precesses about the $z$-axis of the body-fixed coordinate system. This seems ...
1
vote
1answer
347 views

E and H fields created by fiber optics?

When an EM wave travels down a conductor, it creates and electric and magnetic field around (H) the wire and normal to (E) the wire. My question is, when light travels down an optical material such ...
3
votes
2answers
312 views

Misaligned Mirror on Michelson Inferometer

If one of the outer mirrors on a Michelson interferometer was to be misaligned by a small angle of theta, what would be the shape of the interference pattern in the detector plane? What would happen ...
4
votes
3answers
626 views

Maxwell equation boundary conditions on a conducting sheet

I'm having difficulties solving boundary conditions for an infinitely thin conducting layer in a presence of an alternating field. I use the Maxwell equations: $\nabla \cdot \mathbf B = 0$ $\nabla ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

what is universality (with respect to SUSY and neutral kaon oscillations)?

I'm having trouble putting the pieces together. In SM, neutral kaon oscillation is heavily constrained. This means, roughly, that the squark mass matrices have to be diagonal. And this is called ...
3
votes
2answers
384 views

Can a neutron be created from pure energy

Is it possible to create a neutron out of pure energy, i.e. not by bringing a bunch of already-existing quarks together? (A quick calculation using E = mc2 shows the energy required would be about 1.5 ...
1
vote
2answers
178 views

What is the fundamental reason for noise?

I have read that noise is a result of there being "no such thing as a perfect one-way valve". That energy transfer is never perfectly one-way; there will always (at some level) a finite flow of energy ...
0
votes
4answers
426 views

Bicycle Wheel Drag in Slipstream

I was recently driving behind a car that had a bicycle mounted on a carrier over the rear bumper. The bicycle wheels were not bound so they were rotating in the slip-stream of the car. I wonder, the ...
4
votes
1answer
449 views

Boundary conditions in AdS/CFT

This question is in reference to this very famous paper of Witten. In general through the whole paper why is the author able to just focus on the scalar field propagating in the bulk and not need ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Is the expectation value always an eigenvalue?

Does the expectation value of an observable must be equal to an eigenvalue of the corresponding operator? I already know that 0 is not an eigenvalue, but is there any other examples?
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How many grams of explosive are equivalent to the energy in a battery?

In the movie Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Arnie's fuel cells were twice shown to be extremely devastating when their stored energy was released. In real life, how many grams of, say, gunpowder ...
3
votes
2answers
129 views

Cosmological relativistic effects : misunderstanding between cosmological and relativistic communities?

I would like to clarify something that mixes cosmology and relativistic effects. Maybe I'm not understanding something or maybe there a difference of vocabulary between the cosmological and the ...
22
votes
3answers
1k views

Why doesn't a fly fall off the wall?

Pretty simple question, but not an obvious answer at least not to me. I mean you can't just place a dead fly on the wall and expect it to stay there, he will fall off due to gravity. At first I ...
0
votes
1answer
393 views

Would string theory change everything? [closed]

Whilst I don't know anything except the definition of String theory and I'm a beginner, I'm curious about it. What I would like to know is: does string theory change a lot in Physics? If it's not ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Symmetrizing the Canonical Energy-Momentum Tensor

The Canonical energy momentum tensor is given by $$T_{\mu\nu} = \frac{\partial {\cal L}}{\partial (\partial^\mu \phi_s)} \partial_\nu \phi_s - g_{\mu\nu} {\cal L} $$ A priori, there is no reason to ...
0
votes
1answer
736 views

Could Dark Matter be a manifestation of tachyons tunnelling between black holes? [closed]

Among the many Dark Matter candidates, I wondered if there are any along the lines of the title. The inner horizon of a black hole, with its mass inflation, and/or the high spacetime curvature, seems ...
5
votes
5answers
1k views

Measure absolute speed

Currently I'm 17 years old, going to secondary school. So, my ideas might be totally wrong... I know that everything is relative. In the example of speed, the earth moves, and the galaxy moves, etc. ...
0
votes
1answer
888 views

What kind of force is it when you push a door shut? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How can I stand on the ground? EM or/and Pauli? It probably seems like a silly question to a physicist, but I'm from a pure maths background and don't know an awful lot ...
7
votes
5answers
6k views

Math or Physics degree?

I am hoping to become a physicist focusing mainly on the theoretical side in the future. I am trying to decide whether to go for a physics or math undergrad course. Assuming that I am capable of ...
11
votes
3answers
5k views

273 + degree Celsius = Kelvin. Why 273?

Temperature conversion: 273 + degree Celsius = Kelvin Actually why is that 273? How does one come up with this? My teacher mentioned Gann's law (not sure if this is the one) but I couldn't find ...
2
votes
2answers
449 views

Micro-canonical ensemble and classical reality

I seem to find a contradiction in the notion of probability density used by Landau and the notion of micro-canonical ensemble. To see this, take an isolated classical system and we know ...
3
votes
1answer
666 views

Gauss law in classical U(1) gauge theory

I can see that $a_{0}$ is not an independent field and Gauss law is a constraint on the theory arising from field equations. But, I don't get the geometrical picture. Let $A$ be the space of all ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Why can one equate the the zeroth order coefficient with the initial state in time-dependent perturbation theory in quantum mechanics?

Setup In the typical treatment of time-dependent perturbation theory in quantum mechanics, one arrives at the set of equations $$ i \dot{a}^{(r + 1)}_m(t) = \sum_n \langle m |H_1(t)|n \rangle e^{i ...
0
votes
2answers
8k views

Refraction, reflection, and what is total reflection?

So if light travels from one media to another with a different refraction index, what may happen happen? Refraction, reflection or total reflection? I am quite confused as to the differences between ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Conservation of Energy in a magnet

When a permanent magnet attracts some object, lets say a steel ball, energy is converted into for instance kinetic energy and heat when attraction happens, and they eventually collide. Does this imply ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Is there a finite amount of mass in the universe? [duplicate]

So, I'm not too physics savvy but I am curious to ask. Is there a finite amount of mass in the universe? or is there more and more being created from somewhere or something? If the universe is ...
9
votes
3answers
3k views

Hamiltonian is conserved, but is not the total mechanical energy

I wondering about the interpretation for the energy difference between the Hamiltonian and the total mechanical energy for systems where the Hamiltonian is conserved, but it is not equal to the total ...
0
votes
1answer
845 views

Energy used to stop / slow an object

I'm trying to workout how much energy (if any), I use (imagining me as an efficient machine rather than a complex bio-mechanical human) when I lower or catch a weight. I understand that when I push it ...
1
vote
0answers
132 views

What is the angular distance between Ptolemaic perigees of Mercury?

In his excellent treatment of the history of the science of astronomical distances and sizes, Albert van Helden says (p.29) that The complicated [Ptolemaic] model of Mercury has the curious ...
0
votes
1answer
119 views

If it is given which intervals are spacelike, can be determined which intervals are lightlike?

Provided that the notion of "$\mbox{spacelike}$"-ness (of an interval) is symmetric: $$\text{spacelike}( \, x - y \, ) \Longleftrightarrow \text{spacelike}( \, y - x \, ),$$ then for any set $X$ (of ...
2
votes
1answer
337 views

Equivalence of classical and quantized equation of motion for a free field

Suppose a classical free field $\phi$ has a dynamic given in Poisson bracket form by $\partial_o\phi=\{H, \phi\}$. If we promote this field to an operator field, the dynamic after canonical ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Applications of the particle in a box and the finite square well

What are some "real" world applications of the particle in a box (PIB) and the finite square well (FSW) which are discussed in an intro quantum mechanics class? For instance, I know that the PIB can ...
2
votes
1answer
8k views

How do you change Planck's law from frequency to wavelength? [duplicate]

I have to derive Wien's displacement law by using Planck's law. I've tried but I come to a unsolvable equation (well I can't solve it) anywhere I look online it comes to the same conclusion, you need ...
0
votes
1answer
193 views

What is changed when proton has finite radius?

How the field and interactions are changed when we assume that proton has finite radius in atom for example? What gives the finite size effect? Is it the higher moments of multipole expansion?
-1
votes
1answer
211 views

Calculate time to go from one point to another point [closed]

in a 2D football game I want to calculate cycle(time) until ball go from one point to another point. in this link exist all fomulas that we need for my problem but anyone does not have any parameter ...
4
votes
1answer
312 views

What is a virtual photon pair?

When describing a black hole evaporation in the hawking black body radiation it is usually said that is due to a virtual photon pair, is it this what happens? And what is virtual photon pair, does the ...
2
votes
0answers
823 views

What happens with photon when it is slowed down substantially?

In a dispersive media light's velocity can change substantially. Imagine we can slow it down to near 0 what the wave would look like? Frequency of light does not seem to change even at v=0 (at least ...
2
votes
0answers
207 views

2D Car Physics including Throttle

For a simulation for testing on automatic cruise control, I came across the equation: $$ v_{n+1} = (1 - k_1 / m) v_n + (1 - k_b) \begin{pmatrix} T_n \\ θ_n \\ \end{pmatrix} $$ where: $T$ = ...
5
votes
1answer
254 views

Earth-Moon orbiting each other after being engulfed by Red Giant

Recently some exoplanets were discovered which are thought to be the leftover cores of giant planets that had survived a star becoming a Red Giant and then shrinking back to a subdwarf. If giant ...

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