3
votes
1answer
278 views

Why should the mass of leptons to be near of proton and QCD/chiral scales?

The mistery of the mass of the top being in the electroweak scale can be justified by the Higgs mechanism itself; in some sense the top mass is the only "natural" mass, the other masses of fermions ...
1
vote
1answer
230 views

Soft Condensed Matter

I need a book dealing in particular with the intermolecular forces and, if possible, the diffusive processes. Someone knows an appropriate one?
8
votes
4answers
7k views

Weight on carpet vs. hard floor

Will the scale say I weigh more, less, or the same on a carpet as compared to a hard floor? You can assume the scale works via spring mechanism. Free body diagrams encouraged!
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Why an object travels a circular path?

It might sound stupid but seriously I couldn't find why? We have a mass with a constant speed, which is acted on by a unit force which is always at right angles to its direction of motion. Why do ...
5
votes
1answer
203 views

Are there string backgrounds which can't be described by first quantized string theory?

In the strong coupling limit of type IIA and heterotic E8 string theory, we get 11 dimensional M-theory in which we have no strings. Instead, we have M2 branes. Are there any other backgrounds in ...
5
votes
0answers
179 views

Is string theory over a time varying background a conformal field theory to all orders in perturbation theory?

When computing the first order perturbative corrections to string theory over a curved background, we find the background has to be Ricci-flat if the dilaton is constant and we have no fluxes. Such is ...
25
votes
3answers
1k views

Why is high temperature superconductivity so hard to solve?

The phenomenon of high temperature superconductivity has been known for decades, particularly layered cuprate superconductors. We know the precise lattice structure of the materials. We know the band ...
11
votes
0answers
221 views

Is there any way to distinguish experimentally gauge mediation from gravity mediation in an unambiguous way?

There are lots of models of gravity mediated SUSY breaking with various spectra as well as various general gauge mediation models. Are there any "smoking gun" experimental singnatures that could ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

What does Lijun Wang's experiment about supraluminal speed of light in a medium mean?

This is a summary from Physics World of the paper: L J Wang et al. 2000 Nature 406 277-- "Wang and colleagues begin by using a third continuous-wave laser to confirm that there are two peaks in the ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Maximum size of the observable universe?

The size of our observable universe must have grown over time in the early universe. Conversely with the accelerated expansion, I have heard that eventually our observable universe will shrink down ...
7
votes
4answers
867 views

Dirac equation on general geometries?

I have a numerical method for computing solutions to the Dirac equation for a spin 1/2 particle constrained to an arbitrary surface and am interested in finding applications where the configuration ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

If Betelgeuse were to go supernova

If Betelgeuse were to go supernova would the sky be twice as bright, or day time extended, depending on what time of year it happened in. Basically when it does supernova how bright and large will it ...
1
vote
4answers
224 views

Astronomy: Are any vanished objects visible to the naked eye?

Are there any objects out there that have since vanished, but because of their distance and the travel time for light, can be seen with the naked eye? Or are those things only visible with ...
11
votes
5answers
11k views

Difference between electric field and electric displacement field

$$\mathbf D = \varepsilon \mathbf E$$ I don't understand the difference between $\mathbf D$ and $\mathbf E$. When I have a plate capacitor different medium inside will change $\mathbf D$, right? ...
2
votes
1answer
226 views

Is the exponential of the distribution $i\Delta^+(x)$, the 2-point function of a free quantized Klein-Gordon field theory, a distribution?

From answers to a previous question, a finite degree polynomial in the distribution $i\Delta^+(x)$, with Fourier transform $2\pi\delta(k^2-m^2)\theta(k_0)$, is a distribution, even though a product of ...
4
votes
1answer
884 views

Where's the mass?

When you look a the Polyakov or Nambu-Goto action, you see a T for tension, but no mass. When you look the action of a relativistic particle, you see the m. See here. So here's the question. Where is ...
2
votes
3answers
200 views

Is the “far” universe expanding more quickly?

I'm reading this silly Time article: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2044517,00.html And they say "Even at its best, the 20-year-old telescope never had the acuity to peer so far into ...
1
vote
0answers
249 views

Are virtual photons affected by effective gravity in non-linear quantum electrodynamics?

Quantum electrodynamics based upon Euler-Heisenberg or Born-Infeld Lagrangians predict photons to move according to an effective metric, which is dependent on the background electromagnetic field in a ...
7
votes
4answers
609 views

de sitter cosmologic limit

It has been said that our universe is going to eventually become a de sitter universe. Expansion will accelerate until their relative speed become higher than the speed of light. So i want to ...
16
votes
4answers
2k views

Are neutrinos Majorana particles?

That is, are they identical to their anti-particles? (Any results of double beta decay experiments?)
6
votes
3answers
9k views

What happens when we connect a metal wire between the 2 poles of a battery?

As I remembered, at the 2 poles of a battery, positive or negative electric charges are gathered. So there'll be electric field existing within the battery. This filed is neutralized by the chemical ...
1
vote
2answers
314 views

how does a glow lamp work

First, what do you call this in English? Second, how does it work? Why do I have not only light at the gas barrier between the two wires? Thanks!
2
votes
2answers
744 views

Black Hole Singularity and String Theory

This question arises in a somewhat naive form because I am largely unfamiliar with String Theory. I do know that it incorporates higher space dimensions where I shall take the overall dimensionality ...
7
votes
3answers
873 views

Covariant Quantisation and the Time Operator in String Theory

Covariant quantisation in string theory is accomplished by giving the commutator relations $[X^\mu(\sigma,\tau),P^\nu(\sigma',\tau)] = i \eta^{\mu\nu} \delta(\sigma - \sigma')$. Although ...
2
votes
1answer
977 views

Ski Jumper's vertical velocity after $246.5m$ record?

What would be the vertical velocity of this ski jumper (ski flyer), after he first touches down, after he breaks the record with a $246.5m$ jump? What g force would he experience as he slows down? ...
379
votes
20answers
139k views

Cooling a cup of coffee with help of a spoon

During the breakfast with my colleagues, a question popped into my head: What is the fastest method to cool a cup of coffee, if your only available instrument is a spoon? A qualitative answer would ...
1
vote
2answers
415 views

Why doesn't the existence of proper-time $\tau$ imply a preferred reference frame?

A proper time interval $\Delta\tau$ for a given observer is a relativistic invariant. However, the calculation of $\Delta\tau$ requires reference to some arbitrary coordinate time t: $\Delta\tau$ = ...
-4
votes
1answer
213 views

Why String theory introduced in cosmological models to study nature of universe? [closed]

Why String theory ? simple cosmological model is not sufficient for study of nature of universe
3
votes
1answer
598 views

Energy levels in disordered organic semiconductors?

Now in disordered organics, the band picture is thrown out the window, from what I can tell (due to lack of symmetry). But don't HOMO/LUMO levels basically take the place of conduction/valence bands ...
1
vote
10answers
3k views

Should you really lean into a punch?

There's a conventional wisdom that the best way to minimize the force impact of a punch to the head is to lean into it, rather than away from it. Is it true? If so, why? EDIT: Hard to search for ...
3
votes
1answer
627 views

Time evolution in quantum mechanics

We know that an operator A in quantum mechanics has time evolution given by Heisenberg equation: $$ \frac{i}{\hbar}[H,A]+\frac{\partial A}{\partial t}=\frac{d A}{d t} $$ Can we derive from this ...
4
votes
2answers
263 views

Visibility of moon-based laser from Earth

If someone (or some robot) on the moon were to point a laser at the Earth, how many watts would the laser need, to be easily seen with the un-aided eye from Earth? Obviously this depends on a number ...
2
votes
3answers
523 views

What restricts the value of weak hypercharge from being 5/3?

The quarks and leptons chiral states have hypercharges of $0,\pm 1/3,\pm 2/3, \pm 3/3, \pm 4/3, \pm 6/3$. The value of $\pm 5/3$ is prominently missing. Is there a theoretical principle which picks ...
2
votes
2answers
321 views

On a principal bundle, why is the horizontal vector space not unique?

On a principal bundle, at each point you have a tangent vector space. At a given point, the vectors tangent to the fiber form the vertical vector space. Then the vector space at that point is a direct ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

How slow is a reversible adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas?

A truly reversible thermodynamic process needs to be infinitesimally displaced from equilibrium at all times and therefore takes infinite time to complete. However, if I execute the process slowly, I ...
3
votes
2answers
840 views

Why is it necessary to represent Schrodinger's equation as a partial differential equation?

The Schrodinger equation governs the possible time evolution of a wave function, expressed as a partial differential equation. Isn't this equivalent to the simpler equation $$\omega = \hbar k^2/2m$$ ...
2
votes
5answers
560 views

what are dimensions?

First, discrete examples. In a computer screen I can specify any "2D" point with just one single number (pixel order starting count from first at upper left, and going on, left2right and up2down ...
8
votes
1answer
194 views

When periodic solutions are combined with timelessness, do we get closed timelike curves?

In quantum gravity, ADM wavefunctional solutions have to satisfy the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This leads to timelessness. What happens if we have a time periodic solution? In classical general ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Number of dimensions in string theory and possible link with number theory

This question has led me to ask somewhat a more specific question. I have read somewhere about a coincidence. Numbers of the form $8k + 2$ appears to be relevant for string theory. For k = 0 one gets ...
4
votes
1answer
562 views

What is “localisation” of instantons?

I often encountered the term "localization" in the context of instantons, as for example in the work of Nekrasov on extensions of Seiberg-Witten theory to N=1 gauge theories. Could someone give a ...
-1
votes
4answers
2k views

Resistance between two points on a conducting surface

Suppose we have a cylindrical resistor, with resistance given by $R=\rho\cdot l/(\pi r^2)$ Let $d$ be the distance between two points in the interior of the resistor and let $r\gg d\gg l$. Ie. it is ...
3
votes
2answers
10k views

How is the speed of light calculated?

How is the speed of light calculated? My knowledge of physics is limited to how much I studied till high school. One way that comes to my mind is: if we throw light from one point to another (of known ...
9
votes
2answers
11k views

How is distance between sun and earth calculated?

How has the distance between sun and earth been calculated by scientists? and size of sun? Thanks,
3
votes
4answers
2k views

Historically, how do we know that Earth moves around Sun? And it does so in an elliptical orbit?

I know the basics of solar system like how Earth moves around Sun, and that we have so many planets, elliptical orbit of earth, and how far is sun from earth etc etc. I want to take a step back and ...
-3
votes
1answer
491 views

History of Man Acquired knowledge of solar system [closed]

I know the basics of solar system like how earth moves around sun, and that we have so many planets, elliptical orbit of earth, and how far is sun from earth etc etc. I want to take a step back and ...
5
votes
1answer
633 views

Scale dependence of energy dissipation in viscous flow via AdS/CFT

The famous AdS/CFT calculation of the shear viscosity/entropy ratio for strongly coupled $N=4$ SYM relates the shear viscosity to the absorption cross section for fluctuations of the metric onto a ...
4
votes
1answer
562 views

BCS theory, Richardson model and Superconductivity

I'm studying Richardson Model in second quantization. There are many initial points that I don't understand: We supposed that an attractive force between 2 electrons exists, due to electron-phonon ...
2
votes
3answers
142 views

Planetary Atmospheres

Venus (0.815 Earth mass) supports a CO2 atmosphere of 93 bars at its surface. Earth's N2/O2 atmosphere has a surface pressure of one bar. What are the factors that limit the mass of atmospheric gases ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

What happens when you cut a biconvex lens in half?

Specifically, does the focal length change? How can this be rationalized?
2
votes
1answer
273 views

What happend with the light from all the galaxies visibles from an earth telescope?

Supposing it's possible to see some distant galaxies with an earth telescope, then, at the tip of the telescope lens there are photons comming from the distant galaxy... So, if I extend my hand in a ...

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