2
votes
1answer
61 views

Atomic absorption question

My book says that when a photon carrying a certain amount of energy hits an electron, that gets excited and goes on an higher energetic level, absorbing the energy of the photon. When it comes back to ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Can we measure a mass increase for a system with more energy?

This question is about whether the mass of a particle increases with its speed. Here is my related question from which this question spawned: Why is there a controversy on whether mass increases with ...
3
votes
1answer
500 views

How is weight distributed when legs are astride?

Is there a simple and quick formula to find the weight (the force acting) on each leg, especially when legs are astride and they are not equally stretched? (or, better) not equally distant from the ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Symmetry breaking under isothermal expansion

Is there any example of a symmetry breaking phase transition in a system of particles under isothermal expansion?
1
vote
1answer
261 views

Why does the state space contain states with negative norm and what would be an example?

My lecture script of Quantum Field Theory states that " the state space contains states with negative norm ". Why does it have to be like this and what would be an example fo such a state?
10
votes
2answers
472 views

For a particle to have physical mass, is it always necessary to have a mass term in the lagrangian?

Since the self-energy adds to the bare mass defined in the Lagrangian, is it possible to create a physical particle mass from the self-energy alone, with no mass terms occuring in the Lagrangian? On ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Why does Snell's law not factor in wavelength?

If dispersion is caused due to different wavelengths bending with different angles, how is Snell's law right in generalizing it as $\sin(i) / \sin(r)$? Or am I missing something?
2
votes
2answers
209 views

Why black body radiation is all over the frequency range

I was studying black body radiation and how quantization of energy solves the problem of ultraviolet catastrophe. But I have a very fundamental doubt. A black body can be assumed as a cavity with a ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

Can entanglements themselves be entangled?

In other words, could there be higher dimensional entanglements between entanglements? For instance, this could allow us to entangle two entangled-far-away pairs to create a system of four entangled ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Is the charge of an ion evenly distributed?

This question relates to: Gauss' law and ions? Is the charge distribution in an ion spherically symmetric due to quantum mechanical effects or do we assume it when using Gauss's law, as in the ...
20
votes
1answer
386 views

How many molecules rub off when I press a key?

I have a lot of questions below but my overarching questions are: Do surfaces rubbing lightly together always strip molecules off of each other? and How can we model that? Clearly the answer to the ...
-1
votes
1answer
94 views

Can we multiply an electromagnetic field?

can we multiply light by a sequence of reflections in a closed vessel? also, is light a part of EM wave? can we multiply the radio wave or EM wave from a transformer?
3
votes
3answers
293 views

Are stars getting more metal-rich, less massive and shorter-lived with cosmic time?

A star produces energy through nuclear fusion with the 2H and 3H isotopes to create 4He for example. I read that there is a mass loss of 0.018884 (in atomic mass units). Of course this mass loss is ...
5
votes
1answer
515 views

Dirac's remark that inspired Feynman when formulating path integral

When Feynman was trying to formulate path integral of quantum mechanics, he was inspired by Dirac's remark which roughly states that $e^{i\frac{S}{\hbar}}$corresponds to the transition amplitude, ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Gauss' law and ions?

My text book says that with we have a singly ionized sodium atom net charge +e and if we choose a spherical surface centered on the ion and large enough to contain it all we do not need to know the ...
4
votes
2answers
104 views

Is the coldest place in the universe likely to be artificial or natural?

The Boomerang Nebula is often cited as one of the coldest natural places in the universe at 1 K, but that's about 10 orders of magnitude off from what's been created in a lab. Are there theoretical ...
0
votes
2answers
84 views

Why is uncertainty $\geq {\hbar}/{2} $ [duplicate]

Almost all uncertainties (for example the position-momentum uncertainty or time-energy uncertainty) are greater than ${\hbar}/{2} $. But what is the derivation of this uncertainty by Heisenberg? Is ...
0
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the equation for the tension on the ends of a cable suspended at different heights?

I'm looking for an equation to find the tension on the ends of a cable suspended between two poles (one higher than the other) with no load but the cable itself. I determined that the tension would ...
2
votes
1answer
389 views

Graviton polarization in higher dimensions

It's not difficult to see that the graviton in $D$ spacetime dimensions has $(D-3)D/2$ polarizations. In $D=4$ there are two $\epsilon^{\pm}_{\mu\nu}$. What I find curious is that in $D=4$ I can ...
0
votes
1answer
235 views

Physical interpretation of Probability Current vanishing inside Potential Barrier

In a Tunneling problem, if the $E_o<V$, we can show that the scattering wavefunction inside a rectangular barrier is a decaying exponential. The solution being real implies that the probability ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Is the spacetime generated by isolated system always asymptotically flat?

I read a saying in wiki of asymptotically flat spacetime http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asymptotically_flat_spacetime "In general relativity, an asymptotically flat vacuum solution models the exterior ...
0
votes
3answers
2k views

What can be seen with a 114mm Aperture 675x Zoom Telescope?

I choose to post this question on the physics exchange seeing there would be a bigger audience for answers than the astronomy exchange still in BETA. But i'm looking to buy a telescope and was ...
1
vote
2answers
233 views

Why does the amount of dark matter increase the further away from the galaxy's center?

Why isn't the dark matter just randomly distributed? How does it know where to go?
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Difference between Hamiltonian in classical Mechanics and in quantum Mechanics

I have a question about difference between Hamiltonian function (the description of system in classical physics) and the Hamiltonian operator (quantum mechanics). I think that there two different ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

Derivative chain rule in a triangle, confusing but interesting problem

I asked the question in math.stackexchange. But I think it is better to ask here again. I am new to these sites. Please forgive me if it is not polite. http://math.stackexchange.com/q/921001 You can ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Expansion of Galaxy's Caused by Electromagnetic forces

From my limited physics knowledge i know that gravity when compared to Electromagnetic forces is very weak... So if every object is polarized (positive and negative separation), then on a bigger level ...
-1
votes
2answers
222 views

Is the electron magnetic moment responsible for the Lorentz force?

My question about the sum of the electrons' magnetic moments in a wire(What is the sum of the electrons' magnetic moments in a wire?) had an answer which disappeared later. The answer was - if I ...
1
vote
2answers
497 views

Is there a strong evidence of antineutron existance?

Wikipedia explains: The antineutron was discovered in proton–proton collisions at the Bevatron (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) by Bruce Cork in 1956, one year after the antiproton was ...
1
vote
1answer
171 views

Does there exist a mathematically rigorous formulation of curved Hilbert Space?

The Hamiltonian is traditionally defined as \begin{align} H_{\text{flat}} = U^{\dagger}DU \end{align} where $D$ is a diagonal matrix with real eigenvalues and $U^{\dagger}U=I$ are the unitary ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Construction of Bound states in Lattice QCD

How the proton state is found and renormalized in lattice QCD? Is there any literature shows the method step by step? What about other bound states in QCD if we somehow know their quantum numbers?
1
vote
1answer
143 views

Why doesn't the photon have mass? The Higgs mechanism and pre-electroweak epoch

1) When electroweak separation occurred, 'why' wasn't the photon 'given' mass like the W and Z bosons? i.e why don't photos interact with the higg's field? 2a) How well is the higg's mechanism ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Why can I blow up other potentials at the origin but not the one inside a dielectric sphere in an electric field?

While solving the electrostatic field for a dielectric in an electric field, we take the potential at origin to not blow and thus, we eliminate the inverse powers of r in the expression for general ...
2
votes
0answers
228 views

Hoop rolling inside a circular hole

A hoop of radius $b$ and mass $m$ rolls without slipping within a stationary circular hole of radius $a > b$ and is subject to gravity. Use the generalized coordinates the rotation angle $\phi$ of ...
4
votes
1answer
206 views

How does the kinetic energy of quarks contribute to the mass of macroscopic objects?

As we know, most of the mass of ordinary matter comes from the kinetic energy of quarks. This means kinetic energy of quarks contributes to the mass of any object. However take a look at this ...
3
votes
1answer
661 views

What is a flat rotation curve?

Was reading about dark matter and the distribution of it throughout the galaxy. it said "For example, if rotation curves are flat this means-" what exactly does this mean?
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Can mass be totally converted into energy? [duplicate]

Suppose you have 1 kg of lead, can the whole thing be converted into energy so that no mass remains? Or does the conversion stop at the protons/neutrons?
4
votes
3answers
1k views

How to prove the Levi-Civita contraction?

I want to prove the following relation \begin{align} \epsilon_{ijk}\epsilon^{pqk} = \delta_{i}^{p}\delta_{j}^{q}-\delta_{i}^{q}\delta_{j}^{p} \end{align} I tried expanding the sum \begin{align} \...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Scalar Particles, Flavor Changing Processes and Gauge Symmetries

Let's consider an extended version of the Standard Model (SM) with a new Yukawa operator of the form $$ \sum_\ell g_\ell\bar{\ell}\ell \phi ,$$ where $\ell$ is any lepton of the SM and $\phi$ is a new ...
1
vote
1answer
140 views

Do photons change velocity instantaneously?

Any object traveling at c is observed as traveling at c in all reference frames. When a photon travels through a vacuum at c, all reference frames observe it traveling at c. When a photon passes ...
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Finding the magnetic vector potential by calculus of variations

Given the functional $$F[A]=\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}\{\frac{1}{2\mu(x)}|\nabla\times\vec{A}|^2-\vec{J}\cdot\vec{A}\}d^3x$$ with $\vec{A}$ is a candidate vector potential for the field $\vec{B}=\nabla\times\...
1
vote
1answer
127 views

Expanding metre sticks [duplicate]

Given the Universe is expanding. Therefore everything within the U is expanding, in all dimensions, subatomic to cosmic. Then all metre sticks are expanding. The question: How can we measure U ...
3
votes
1answer
258 views

Vacuum stability in quantum field theory

What exactly do people mean when they talk about the scale dependence of the effective potential ($V$)? I explain the motivation for my question (and hence my confusion) below. Please correct me as ...
3
votes
1answer
5k views

Add air resistance to projectile motion

I am given an initial x and y position and initial velocity and I was asked to graph the trajectory in 1 second intervals. This is what I have so far: If $x_0 = 1, v_{0x} = 70, y_0 = 0, v_{0y} = 80, ...
1
vote
3answers
127 views

Are there two aspects of Born's rule?

I am having some problem understanding Born's rule. I am getting a little bit confused. Here it goes; Let $f(x,t)$ be a solution of Schrodinger equation. Then Born's rule says that the square modulus ...
5
votes
1answer
696 views

How to calculate the kinetic energy of supernova ejecta?

I believed I could use $0.5\times M_{ej} V_{ej}^2$, with $M_{ej}$ being the ejected mass and $V_{ej}$ being the velocity of the ejected mass. But I noticed in this and this that the the mean velocity ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Ways of finding average accelleration

So I had a little debate with a professor on a simple problem of motion (See section). It basically comes down to how to find average acceleration. I did some research and couldn't find a definite ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Why do skidding wheels have less traction than non skidding wheels? [duplicate]

I do not understand in terms of coefficients of friction why this happens? From my understanding the ground and the tire still have the same coefficients of friction right? So why is there less ...
0
votes
4answers
94 views

The Equivalence Principle approaching the speed of light [duplicate]

If, in local system, an accelerated system is completely physically equivalent to a system inside a gravitational field. Acceleration results in an increase in speed. Right? What happens when the ...
2
votes
2answers
393 views

Conservation laws and continuity equations

I'm a bit messed up with conservation laws and continuity equations. This is my understanding: A conservation law describes that a physical quantity $G$ is conserved with time. It does not prevent ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Spinor normalizations in Breit-frame: electric and magnetic form factors

We usually have the normalization (see e.g. page 110 in Halzen & Martin "Quarks and Leptons") $$u^{(r)\dagger}u^{(s)} = 2E\delta_{rs}$$ which leads to $${\bar{u}^{(s)}}u^{(s)} = 2m. $$ ...

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