3
votes
1answer
134 views

Why do we do partial and not covariant differentiation with $x^{\nu}$?

Why when taking the velocity vector we make $$u^{\nu}=\frac{d}{d\tau}x^{\nu}$$ and not $$u^{\nu}=\frac{\nabla}{d\tau}x^{\nu}$$ where in the last equation I meant the covariant derivative. Why?
1
vote
2answers
83 views

How should semiconductors be understood? [duplicate]

In the chemistry setting, a doped semiconductor is a crystal lattice with holes/extra electrons in it. In the band/quantum mechanical picture, these holes/extra electrons can be seen as the amount ...
5
votes
2answers
270 views

Huygen's principle in curved spacetimes

Does Huygen's principle hold in even dimensional (2m+1,1) curved spacetimes, or are there certain necessary conditions for it to hold? In other words, if I have Cauchy data for a field satisfying the ...
2
votes
2answers
191 views

Confused about the theoretical origin of quadratic air drag [duplicate]

Though the mathematical concepts underlying quadratic air drag are quite straightforward (a single variable differential, just like the linear drag equation), my text book (and online text books) ...
2
votes
4answers
173 views

Turning a car on a perfect surface

Say you have a car with perfect wheels and a perfect surface with so much friction that it never skids. When the car is traveling forward, the wheels INSTANTANEOUSLY turn 90 degrees. Does the car ...
9
votes
1answer
229 views

What are the implications for the AdS/Cft program if AdS is unstable?

To my understanding recent progress in the study of the non linear stability of AdS spacetime suggest that $AdS$ might be unstable. If this is true, what are the physical and mathematical ...
1
vote
1answer
175 views

GR exercise: falling particles on earth's surface

I'm having some trouble with Exercise 5.1 in Shapiro's BH,WD&NS book, which goes as follows: Consider two particles of mass $m$ at distance $r$ and $r+h$, such that $h\ll r$, on the same ...
6
votes
0answers
110 views

target category of extended field theory

For a topological field theory to be a true “extension” of an Atiyah-Segal theory, the top two levels of its target (ie its $(n-1)^{\text{st}}$ loop space) must look like $\text{Vect}$. What other ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

How obtain conserved quantities in integrable models in accordance with Liouville's theorem, via Sklyanin Poisson algebra?

In classical integrable models, in the discrete case we have the Sklyanin algebra, $$\lbrace T_{a}(u),T_{b}(v)\rbrace =[r_{ab}(u,v),T_{a}(u)T_{b}(v)].$$ How to prove that the conserved quantities are ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Why do physical bodies in the universe follow the law of physics ( or any rule/pattern ) ? [duplicate]

Why do physical bodies in universe are bound to follow a rule ( eg. laws of physics ) ? Is their any imaginary condition possible, where they stop following any rule. And everything becomes random ? ( ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Adding matter to make galaxies bigger

What are the actual factors that play a role in the accretion of matter into galaxies? I read about Accretion Disks but I don't quite understand how they work yet.
7
votes
5answers
2k views

Forces other than the fundamental interactions, e.g. friction

Forgive me for the silly question, but I just don't get it. I just completed an elementary course in mechanics, and I am curious to know what I am about to ask. We have, all year, dealt with many ...
1
vote
2answers
297 views

Diffusion and Drift currents in a PN junction

In a forward-biased PN junction, the potential barrier decreases, allowing more majority carriers from one side to diffuse to the other side where they are minority carriers. After they cross the ...
4
votes
2answers
322 views

Can Minkowski spacetime be redefined as a non-flat riemannian manifold?

Minkowski space time is defined in terms of a flat pseudo-Riemannian manifold. I have wondered if it can be redefined as Riamannian manifold and in the case what type of curvature would there appear. ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Normalising a wave function in parts?

If we have the wave function $\psi_{100}(r,\theta,\phi)=R_{10}(r)Y_{00}(\theta,\phi)$ when we are normalising it we do the following: $$1=\int| \psi_{100}(r,\theta,\phi)|^2sin(\theta) r^2drd\theta ...
0
votes
1answer
240 views

Transformer leakage reactance

In practical transformers there is always a leakage reactance. If it is possible to construct such a transformer (ideally thinking) having zero leakage reactance will the transformer action work? or ...
1
vote
0answers
80 views

Constructing conserved current given the lagrangian

Consider the following Lagrangian for a massive vector field $A_{\mu}$ in Euclidean space time: $$\mathcal L = \frac{1}{4} F^{\alpha \beta}F_{\alpha \beta} + \frac{1}{2}m^2 A^{\alpha}A_{\alpha}$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Magnetic Induction

Consider the figure above in which there is an electric current (constant) in R1 (consider it to be made of a conductor). Obviously there will be a magnetic field induced in R2 (consider it to be ...
4
votes
3answers
804 views

Definition of a year

Is there an acceptable definition of a year (in number of days)? Google Calculator: https://www.google.com/search?q=seconds+in+1+year returns 3.15569e7 seconds and then ...
1
vote
0answers
173 views

Link between Quantum and Classical Mechanics [duplicate]

In classical mechanics we have momentum as generator of translation by following definition: $$f(x+\delta x)=f(x)+[f(x),p]\delta x+....$$ I was wondering whether using this relation and commutation ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Find the max projection angle so that distance from point of projection always increases

We want to launch a projectile from the surface of earth so that its distance from the point of projection is always increasing. What is the maximum angle of projection for which this is possible? ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

“Dictionary” between QFTs in D and D-1 dimensions?

Consider the Einstein field equations. Suppose, for instance, that the RHS, the stress-energy tensor, is uniquely determined by the electromagnetic field. Now, if we imagine a quantized version of ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

How to measure Entropy?

While $$\delta Q=T\ dS$$ allows for obtaining the entropy change of an isolated system in equilibrium by measuring the heat exchange with the environment, I was wondering whether there are ways to ...
1
vote
0answers
101 views

Determining the attraction of a magnetic bob

I have a question concerning the calculation of the attraction to a ferromagnetic material in a coupled B-field, which of $N \geq3$ equally strong cylindrical permanent magnet is produced. ...
1
vote
2answers
143 views

Work and Kinetic energy rely on each other which came first?

In all the places I've looked kinetic energy is derived from the definition of work, but I don't understand how the definition of work was developed with out the concept of kinetic energy. My question ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Why is Avogadro's law always true?

Why is Avogadro's law always true? How and why do equal volumes of gases at equal pressure and temperature contain equal number of molecules? I know it is a fundamental principle in chemistry but I ...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

Increasing resistance, by heat?

I was wondering the magnitude of effect to a conductor's resistance when heated by a few degrees. Can this be controlled way of changing conductor's resistance, or fixing in a system?
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Books on foundations of QM [duplicate]

I am seeking for books on foundations of Quantum Mechanics with subjects like the EPR experiment, Bell's theorem, the problem of measurement, entanglement, decoherence, nonlocality, interpretations, ...
0
votes
3answers
95 views

Black Hole gravity pull [duplicate]

Please I want to Know that if the radius of the black hole = 0 then how it have its surface and how it absorbs things? $$\begin{align} g &= \frac{Gm}{0^2} \\ &= \infty \end{align}$$ then ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Do we breathe air by creating a vacuum?

How do we suck air into our lungs, are we generating a vacuum?
5
votes
5answers
2k views

Electron shells in atoms: What causes them to exist as they do?

I have seen similar posts, but I haven't seen what seems to be a clear and direct answer. Why do only a certain number of electrons occupy each shell? Why are the shells arranged in certain distances ...
0
votes
1answer
145 views

I need to know how many pounds of force a 3 million pound object has moving at 1 mph [closed]

How many pounds of force does a 3 million pound object have moving at 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mph?
1
vote
1answer
827 views

Amplitude decrease during geometrical spreading of a seismic pulse

I'm looking at amplitude decrease of a seismic pulse as a result of geometrical spreading. Starting with the energy contained in a unit area, $I = E / (4 \pi r^2)$, where $E$ is the original energy ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Spaghettification while still in orbit

THIS POST does a pretty good job of giving an idea as to what the differences in forces becomes as you approach a black hole. For a small enough black hole, you would reach the dangerous tidal force ...
2
votes
3answers
443 views

What does the $y$-axis represent in the atomic spectra and what is its significance?

The picture is an emission spectrum of Helium. The spectrum has sharp lines (peaks) at certain wave lengths characterizing it as helium. Agreed that it characterizes Helium as atomic spectral line ...
2
votes
1answer
304 views

Can the compactified dimensions of M-Theory/String Theory become uncurled?

Is it possible for the curled dimensions described in superstring theories to become uncurled and open up. I have read that the big bang could have been the uncurling over 3 dimensions through ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Metric convention conversions between expressions

I'm sure this has caused many people headaches. First, is there a metric $(-+++)\leftrightarrow(+---)$ convention conversion chart where many common expressions are listed? Thank you in advance for ...
1
vote
2answers
80 views

Kinetic Energy of a Particle [closed]

Consider a particle of mass $m$ in $6$ dimension. Its coordinate w.r.t. origin $\left(0,0,0,0,0,0\right)$ is given as $\left(x,y,z,\dot{x},\dot{y},\dot{z}\right)$. If we denote $r = ...
0
votes
1answer
127 views

Can a vector be defined by invariance of some algebraic operation to translations rather than rotations?

Every physics book I've come across defines a vector as an n-tuple of numbers that can be combined via an inner product that's invariant to rotations. Is it possible to instead define a vector via ...
5
votes
1answer
255 views

Can a neutrino act as a virtual particle between two electrons to mediate an electron-electron fermonic interaction?

Can a neutrino act as a virtual particle between two electrons to mediate electron-electron fermonic interaction analogous to how a photon acts as a virtual particle between two electrons to mediate a ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Attraction & Lorentz force, at the same time?

If a conductor carrying current is placed inside a magnetic field, we know that there is the Lorentz force pushing the wire. But what about the attraction force between the wire's field and the ...
0
votes
1answer
251 views

help with absolute pressure to gauge pressure derivation steps

I would like some help with the explicit math steps to go from equation 2 to 3. These equations are presented in a paper that I am reading. I will show where these equations came from and my attempt ...
3
votes
1answer
487 views

When Fire meets Water

To preface, I am not a scientific mind, but a writer looking for some validity to a possible scene. That being said, please forgive me! In my scene, huge masses of fire are raining from the sky and ...
0
votes
1answer
271 views

How powerful would an explosion have to be for its effects to be felt worldwide?

If an explosion were to occur at any point on earth, how powerful would that explosion have to be for it to be audible or otherwise detectable by every person on the planet? Detection could mean ...
1
vote
0answers
130 views

Lagrangian Systems

Given a manifold $M$, Arnold's "Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics" defines a Lagrangian system as a pair $(M,L)$ where $L$ is some smooth function on the tangent bundle $TM$. The function ...
4
votes
2answers
496 views

Has anyone developed tunable notch filters in the visible RGB wavelengths which have very fast response times?

I am interested in whether the combination of a spectrometer and a tunable notch filter with notch frequencies at the visible red, green and blue wavelengths which have very fast response times could ...
1
vote
0answers
279 views

What algorithms can be used to compute the binodal in a ternary Flory-Huggins theory?

What are the most popular algorithms used to obtain a binodal curve for the ternary mixture (starting from Flory-Huggins theory)? I would like to obtain a plot similar to the one calculated here ...
0
votes
0answers
110 views

Electromagnetic waves and boundaries

I am reading about dielectric boundaries and electromagnetic plane waves following griffiths ch7. When considering a boundary at z=0 with electric fields perpendicular to the plane of incidence it ...
17
votes
1answer
358 views

Quantum symmetries that are not classical symmetries

An anomaly is a symmetry of the classical action that fails to be a symmetry of the path integral, due to non-invariance of the path integral measure. Does it ever occur that the opposite thing ...
2
votes
1answer
442 views

How does angular momentum transfer between a planet and its moon?

Could you explain how a moon draws angular momentum from a planet? I know that the gravitational force transfers momentum, but I don't understand the mechanics behind it.

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