1
vote
0answers
129 views

In what direction does a frustrated magnetic moment get aligned?

Consider 3 layers of Ferromagnetic materials stacked on top of each other with appropriate spacer layers in between. Let the top and bottom layers be pinned to layers of Anti Ferromagnets adjacent to ...
4
votes
3answers
575 views

Is there a mechanism for time symmetry breaking?

Excluding Thermodynamic's arrow of time, all mathematical descriptions of time are symmetric. We know the arrow of time is real and we know the equations describing physics are real so is there any ...
2
votes
2answers
189 views

Von Neumann Entropy: varying definitions

I have seen different authors define von Neumann entropy in different ways. In particular, some use the natural logarithm and others log to base 2. What is the reasoning for this? Does it make any ...
0
votes
0answers
223 views

Breaking of a covalent bond

When a bond between two atoms is broken, why only one electron is released. Why not two? (as two electrons make up a covalent bond.)
0
votes
1answer
690 views

Free body diagram and Newton's second law

Two bodies of mass $m_1=50 \text{kg}$ and $m_2 = 10 \text{kg}$ are connected with a light rope through a pulley (no friction between the rope and the pulley). $m_2$ moves on surface with angle ...
8
votes
1answer
792 views

What determines bubble locations in boiling water?

Something a little different to our usual fare. I was boiling a pan of water for cookery the other day, and got to wondering what caused the location of the bubble streams from the bottom of the pan. ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

How electrons act under rotating magnetic field?

I study Power Engineering in University. Today I asked my lecturer to explain me exactly how atom's electrons act under spinning rotor's magnetic field, that generated dynamic electricity. But he even ...
2
votes
2answers
218 views

Heisenberg evolution equation for $\hat{\phi}$

Consider quantum Hamiltonian of free massive scalar particle: $$\hat{H} = \int d^3x \left[\frac{1}{2} \hat{\pi}^2 (t, \vec{x}) + \frac{1}{2} \partial_i \hat{\phi}(t, \vec{x}) \partial_i \hat{\phi}(t, ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Energy in the electric field of a translating charged sphere

The energy stored in the electric field of a uniformly charged non-conducting shell moving with a uniform velocity is more than the energy stored in the electric field of the same shell at rest. What ...
4
votes
2answers
385 views

Conservation of Linear Momentum at the point of collision

This is a pretty basic conceptual question about the conservation of linear momentum. Consider an isolated system of 2 fixed-mass particles of masses $m_1$ and $m_2$ moving toward each other with ...
2
votes
2answers
526 views

Lorentz invariance of the action for free relativistic particle

I tried to check the Lorentz invariance of the standard special relativity action for free particle directly: ($c=1$) $$ S=\int L dt=-m\int\sqrt{1-v^{2}}dt $$ Lorentz boost: $$ ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Is Feynman's explanation of how the moon stays in orbit wrong?

Yesterday, I understood what it means to say that the moon is constantly falling (from a lecture by Richard Feynman). In the picture below there is the moon in green which is orbiting the earth in ...
17
votes
3answers
4k views

Does gravity slow the speed that light travels?

Does gravity slow the speed that light travels? Can we actual measure the time it takes light from the sun to reach us? Is that light delayed as it climbs out of the sun's gravity well?
0
votes
1answer
202 views

Identical fermions in the same quantum state

If we are to take two Hydrogen atoms and subject them to the same potential, then wouldn't both Hydrogen atoms be in the same exact quantum state? This bother me because no two identical fermions can ...
3
votes
1answer
514 views

Third-order phase transition in Landau theory

$F=\frac{a}{2}m^2+\frac{u}{4}m^4+\frac{v}{6}m^6-hm$, where F is the free energy, m is the order parameter, h is the external field, $a=a_0(T-T_c)$, and $a_0>0,u>0$ and $v>0$.We know this free ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

Direction of the Area Vector (with regards to magnetic dipole)

I'm learning about torque on a conductive coil in a magnetic field. I have been taught that $\vec\tau = \vec\mu \times \vec{B}$, where $\vec\mu$ is the magnetic dipole moment. Also, $\mu = ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Reducing deposition on power supply wires

From my house there are two wires, i.e. a live and a ground wire which are placed on the power supply lines by a hook. They are not tightly jointed because of some reasons. These two wires are also in ...
1
vote
1answer
843 views

Finite, square, potential well

Lets say we have a finite square well symetric around $y$ axis (picture below). I know how and why general solutions to the second order ODE (stationary Schrödinger equation) are as follows for ...
7
votes
2answers
326 views

How to understand worldsheet fermion as a section?

I am reading Witten's paper on topological string, and I found some mathematical notation is hard to understand for me. Consider the nonlinear sigma model in 2 dimensions governed by maps $\Phi : ...
3
votes
1answer
181 views

Force analysis of silver atom in Stern–Gerlach experiment

In this experiment we only consider the force at z direction, but $\vec B$ field gradient doesn't exclusively exist at z direction according to Maxwell's equations. So why don't we see the splitting ...
1
vote
1answer
243 views

Definition of energy

What is the definition of energy $E$ given a dispersion relation $\omega=\omega(k)$ where $k=|\vec k|$ and $\omega$ is not necessarily linearly proportional to $k$? What about momentum $\vec p$? This ...
2
votes
3answers
180 views

Is electron velocity at induction higher than in a wire?

When looking to the electrostatic induction on a microscopic level, do the electrons really move with high velocities or they move like when a current passes through the wire (slowly).
10
votes
5answers
22k views

Why frequency doesn't change during refraction?

When light goes through one medium to another it's velocity and wavelength changes. Why frequency doesn't change in this phenomenon?
-5
votes
1answer
121 views

Can an Anti nuclear atom be synthesised so it can neutralise the effect of nuclear atom [closed]

as we have studied that if the number of electron becomes equal to number of proton then that particle becomes neutral. so what will the energy or procedure required to break the chain reaction in ...
6
votes
0answers
436 views

Do EM waves transmit spin polarization?

Suppose you have a normal dipole antennae (transmitter and receiver) . Spin polarized current (as opposed to normal current) is sent into the transmitter, it emits an EM wave and the Receiver receives ...
3
votes
5answers
3k views

the temperature of photon and its energy

Do photons have temperature? If not, does it mean that photon lose energy while travelling through space? As the planets farther away from the sun are comparatively cooler than the one that are ...
1
vote
1answer
440 views

What determines the sign of an image distance?

A lens placed at the origin with its axis pointing along the x axis produces a real inverted image at $x = - 24 cm$ that is twice as tall as the object. What is the image distance? Why ...
1
vote
4answers
8k views

Why do objects accelerate as they fall?

Most importantly, what must change in order for the falling object to change its speed? Is it the distance to the centre of the planet? If you pull the earth away from the object as the object falls, ...
1
vote
2answers
367 views

What is the speed of acceleration of the inflation of the universe?

Is the inflation speed of the universe accelerating or is it a constant speed of expansion proportional to distance between objects.
1
vote
4answers
419 views

Are there theories that explain wave-particle duality?

I'm confused by the famous wave-particle duality mystery: When a particle is left unobserved, it acts like a wave and can explore all classically available particle trajectories simultaneously. By ...
0
votes
2answers
293 views

If we connect a block of p-type semiconductor only to a positive terminal, will it become positively charged?

Connect the positive terminal of a battery to a piece of p-doped semiconductor, say, silicon doped with boron. Will the terminal pull electrons out of the doped silicon, or equivalently, inject holes ...
1
vote
1answer
872 views

Calculate Capacitance in Series AC Circuits?

I'm supposed to calculate the capacitance of an unknown capacitor in series, but I'm not sure exactly which equation to use. I know the voltage across the resistor (Vr), voltage across the capacitor ...
5
votes
2answers
374 views

How do you calculate power at the focal point of a mirror?

I'm a Mechanical Engineering student and I'm working on my senior project, so I need help. My project is about designing a solar dish having a diameter of 1.5 meters and a focal length of 60cm. so at ...
1
vote
1answer
261 views

A question about defining a classical CFT

This is kind of related to this, Defining a CFT using beta-functions So what would be the right definition of a CFT even classically? Is it true that classically one will call a theory scale ...
2
votes
2answers
116 views

Where is the magnetic self energy term in $L$ for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field?

In the Lagrangian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field $$L = \frac{1}{2}mu^2 - q(\phi - \frac{\vec{A}}{c}\cdot \vec{u})$$ the energy of the particle is contained in the kinetic term, ...
1
vote
1answer
579 views

Do magnets lose their magnetism/force when they attract/repel each other?

So yea, if two magnets attract/repel multiple times(A LOT) will they lose their magnetism? If they don't break during the whole process?
6
votes
1answer
258 views

Will a football (soccer) diffract? [duplicate]

Apparently all objects have wavelike properties, so, if we kick a football (soccer ball, if you must) through a pair of posts, does the ball in any sense diffract? If this is ridiculous then let me ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Polarizability and the Clausius-Mossotti Relation

There seems to be a fairly large inconsistency in various textbooks (and some assorted papers that I went through) about how to define the Clausius-Mossotti relationship (also called the ...
0
votes
2answers
293 views

Finite square well

I know how and why we use this form of stationary Schrödinger equation for finding $\psi$ outside the finite square potential well: $$\frac{d^2 \psi}{dx^2}=\kappa^2 \psi$$ I Also know that the ...
1
vote
2answers
688 views

Lorentz force in homopolar motor

There are a lot of videos showing the simple homopolar motors in action. Let's look at this one: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jyraFLqfqE It is supposed to be working due to the Lorentz force. ...
3
votes
2answers
355 views

Schmidt basis: Entanglement

I do not understand how any state in Hilbert Space $\mathcal{H}=\mathcal{H}_A\otimes\mathcal{H}_B$ of dimension $\text{dim}(\mathcal{H}_A)\times\text{dim}(\mathcal{H}_B)$ can be decomposed in the ...
2
votes
2answers
231 views

What does the Copenhagen interpretation say about the position of a particle before measurement?

Suppose there is a particle in space. When we measure the position of that particle, we get a particular value with a probability that can be calculated from the wave function. But, according to the ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Difference between proper and comoving frames

I'm reading this book "Introduction to Quantum Fields in Classical Backgrounds" by Mukhanov & Winitzki, and there in the chapter 8 "The Unruh Effect" they introduce 3 reference frames. Laboratory ...
0
votes
0answers
121 views

cgs Gauss' system of units

I had never seen this system until today, and I'm really confused. I've read the wikipedia article about it but I still don't know how to change between this and the international system. For example, ...
1
vote
1answer
5k views

Surface tension and capillarity

The cause of surface tension is said to be asymmetry in the forces experienced by the molecules at the surface due to different interactions with air and liquid, but then the same argument also ...
0
votes
1answer
115 views

Can Joule's First Law of Thermodynamics be Applied to Atomic Charges?

James Joule established that all forms of energy were basically the same and interchangeable. My question is if thas law is relevant in particle physics. Can a positive charge and a negative charge be ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

What happens when a compact fluorescent lamp implodes?

When a incandescent lamp implodes, the filament burns up and the current is interrupted. Yesterday, a compact fluorescent lamp imploded and blew all the switches / fuses. I'm not sure if the same ...
2
votes
2answers
952 views

A charged sphere with pulsing radius

Radius increases and decreases periodically (as a pulse).And so does the charges on the surface of sphere. I can't get what is gonna happen.the EM waves are produced perpendicularly to motion of ...
2
votes
1answer
197 views

What determines the end of space (universe)?

What determines the end of our universe? Is it defined by the farthest out physical object or is it defined by the farthest out form of energy like light?
1
vote
1answer
150 views

Can anyone tell me formula for lattice $a$, $b$ and $c$ in a hexagonal structure?

Can anyone tell me formula for lattice constants $a$, $b$ and $c$ in a hexagonal structure? $a$ , $b$ and $c$ are units cell of structure. As we see in cubic structure we have a formula to calculate ...

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