2
votes
2answers
128 views

How accurate are our calculations about distant stars keeping in mind their enormous distances?

Since many stars are hundreds of light years away from the Earth and therefore, what we observe of them today is really their distant past, how can we say anything with certainty about their ...
10
votes
1answer
137 views

How scientists could say that such meteorite comes from Mars

How could scientists affirm that a meteorite comes from Mars and not from another source ? This is a probability or an absolute certainty ? How much percent ?
1
vote
2answers
230 views

How to comoving volumes depend on the evolution of the Universe?

I'm reading a paper which states that Neutron star binary merger rate at redshift $z$ per unit observer time interval per unit volume is $\dot{n}_{m} = \dot{n}_{0} (1+z)^{2} (1+z)^{\beta}$, ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What exactly is the difference between a sychrotron light source and a free electron laser?

Cyclotron radiation is radiation emitted by a charged particle being bent by a magnetic field. The only difference between cyclotron and synchrotron radiation is that the latter occurs at relativistic ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Orientation in GaAs

I can't find the precise definition of what is the orientation of a GaAs lattice. Being the superposition of two fcc lattices (one of Ga, the other of As), I would think that it is the direction of ...
9
votes
1answer
270 views

Chiral perturbation theory: what is the Quark Condensate? why expand in $U$ rather than Goldstone fields?

I'm studying Chiral Perturbation Theory ($\chi PT$) from Scherer's Introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory. What I am currently having some trouble understanding are two things: The quark ...
-1
votes
2answers
17k views

Relationship between frequency and wavelength [closed]

I am currently writing up a report for science class on the relationship between frequency and wavelength. And so I was wondering if anyone knew where I could find published results (literature value) ...
1
vote
1answer
212 views

What are the problems in quark-gluon plasma? [closed]

Someone (T.D.Lee?) said that quark-gluon plasma would (after 1980?) be very important to understand high-energy physics experiments. I read some description of this new state in wikipedia ...
1
vote
1answer
667 views

Projectile motion problem with upward acceleration and horizontal velocity [closed]

An electron in a cathode-ray tube is traveling horizontally at 2.10×10^9 cm/s when deflection plates give it an upward acceleration of 5.30×10^17 cm/s^2 . B.) What is its vertical displacement during ...
2
votes
3answers
241 views

Redshifted photons

When a photon is emitted from a far away source and then measured by an observer, there is a loss of energy or redshift which takes place. Why does this happen? I have read this similar post, however ...
-1
votes
1answer
136 views

Finite amount of matter and space

(Please bear with me.) If the universe included multi-universes, and black holes transferred matter between them, AND yet there was a large, but FINITE amount of matter and space, How would that ...
5
votes
1answer
446 views

3D movie glasses making white light look red and blue

While waiting for a 3D movie to start, I was playing with the glasses they give you. I understand each lens has different polarized filters, so the left and right superimposed images on the screen go ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

The status / acceptance of block time?

What is the current status or acceptance of block time as it relates to Einstein's theory of relativity? Has quantum mechanics ruled it out or is it still the favored view of the world? Perhaps there ...
1
vote
2answers
809 views

Typical operators in tight binding

Let the tight-binding Hamiltonian be $\sum\limits_{ij} {{t_{ij}}\left| i \right\rangle \left\langle j \right|}$. Where ${\left| i \right\rangle }$ is the atomic orbit at lattice site $i$. My question ...
3
votes
2answers
281 views

Do I need to have an airtight container to siphon boiling water?

I'm attempting to siphon boiling water into another container for a school project. I have researched the physics of a siphon but I can't seem to make my boiling water siphon out of its initial pot. ...
1
vote
3answers
368 views

Beam waist at extremely long distances

A beam of light of wavelength $\lambda$ and width $W$ needs to be focused at a distance $D$ to a spot not bigger than $w_S$, which stands for 'width of sail'. Now, the diffraction limit says it ...
4
votes
2answers
261 views

How can I tell if a system has a quadrupole moment?

We know that gravitational waves are emitted (at least in GR) when the system has a time-varying quadrupole (or higher) moment. My question is Is it possible to easily tell (e.g. just by looking) if ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Matrix elements of momentum operator in position representation

I have two related questions on the representation of the momentum operator in the position basis. The action of the momentum operator on a wave function is to derive it: $$\hat{p} ...
4
votes
3answers
418 views

Partition function of a gas of $N$ identical classical particles

Partition function of a gas of $N$ identical classical particles is given by $$ Z~=~\frac {1}{N! h^{3N}} \int \exp[-\beta H(p_1.......p_n, x_1....x_n)]d^3p_1...d^3p_n,d^3x_1...d^3x_n $$ in this ...
5
votes
1answer
306 views

Why is the Wick contraction in HFB or BCS equal to a single-particle density?

I'm trying to understand how in Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) or BCS theory we can write a product of creation/annihilation operators as single-particle densities under the guise of "Wick's theorem". ...
2
votes
1answer
535 views

What is the mathematical background needed for quantum physics? [duplicate]

I'm a computer scientist with a huge interest in mathematics. I have also recently started to develop some interest about quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Assuming some knowledge in the ...
2
votes
4answers
1k views

The real meaning of time dilation

Is this true or false: If A and B have clocks and are traveling at relative velocity to each other, then to B it APPEARS that A's clock moving slower, but A sees his own clock moving at normal speed. ...
7
votes
5answers
3k views

When driving uphill why can't I reach a velocity that I would have been able to maintain if I started with it?

Consider these two situations when driving on a long straight road uphill: Starting at a high velocity $v_h$, which the car is able to maintain. Starting at a lower velocity $v_l$, and then trying ...
1
vote
1answer
242 views

Why does only one twin travel in the twin paradox?

The wikipedia page repeatedly says that the twin travelling in space is the only one which travels, and also is the only one which faces acceleration and deceleration. So it does not age, while the ...
2
votes
1answer
637 views

How does light get into a stable optical cavity in the first place?

It is supposedly possible to trap a beam of light bouncing back and fourth between two mirrors in a stable configuration. As I understand it, this means the configuration will prevent further spread ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

How reflected objects are composed and who is responsible for that?

Please refer to this image. The scene contains an object close to a mirror in the wall and a window, note that the reflected object is receiving more light than the object itself. I read some ...
4
votes
3answers
857 views

Difference between spinor and vector field [duplicate]

How do we distinguish spinors and vector fields? I want to know it in terms of physics with mathematical argument.
2
votes
1answer
831 views

Minimal Kinetic energy for particle in a box

This is driving me crazy! The question goes as follows: A proton is enclosed in a zone of length 2pm along the x-axis. The minimal kinetic energy of the proton lies closest to: 5000eV 0.5eV 50eV ...
1
vote
2answers
186 views

Why wouldn't Hubble's Law be directly in units of frequency?

Maybe using this as an example: The energy of a particular color of yellow light is $3.44 \times 10^{-22}$ $kJ$ So if I want to find frequency of that light, I take that number, divide by $h$ ...
1
vote
1answer
159 views

Special relativity, acceleration and being in two places at once (How to resolve this paradox?):

Imagine I am on Earth I have a clock which measures time $t$. When my Earth clock reads time $t$, then when I look at a moving spacecraft's clock I see the time $t'$. Let us assume time is measured ...
0
votes
2answers
549 views

If we are travelling with the speed of light, can we see what's behind us? [closed]

If we are travelling with the speed of light, can we see whats behind us(like if we are moving away from earth can we able see the earth)? And how we see the things that we are approaching with speed ...
0
votes
2answers
136 views

Why is the turbulent energy cascade described as function of a wavenumber?

In all the literature I've seen the turbulent energy spectrum described as $E(k)$ instead of $E(L)$, i.e. as a function of a wave number not eddy size. The connection via $k=2\pi/\lambda$ is clear, ...
1
vote
2answers
859 views

In the diode equation, why the exponential $\exp$ and the ideality factor $n$ are there? What do they represent & what is their significance?

In the Shockley diode equation, why the exponential $\exp$ and the ideality factor $n$ are there? What do they represent & what is their significance? I have to work on Solar Photovoltaics, and ...
0
votes
0answers
406 views

How to solve fixed-fixed beam with finite difference method?

What equations to use on this system to form a matrix $A$ with dimensions $[n,n]$ and load vector $q$ with dimension $[n]$ ? I am trying to get vertical displacement $w$. $$w = A^{-1}\times q$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
274 views

Electrostatic charge leakage

What are the ways electrostatic charged objects leak charge in humid conditions? Can airborne particles pick up charge by contact, then be repelled hence removing charge? If so would it be a ...
0
votes
1answer
107 views

Car tires wearing in dependence on breaking system

Lets say I have two cars. They are identical in every way, except that Car A has a normal breaking system, where most of the breaking power is inflicted on the front wheels, and some on the back, and ...
4
votes
2answers
100 views

How does the correlation length of weather emerge?

The question is pretty simple: If I know the weather where I stand, I can estimate the weather 5 meters or 1 km away away pretty well, but I'll have a hard time guessing what the weather is, say, 50 ...
4
votes
1answer
454 views

Compressible fluid flow through a branched pipe junctions

Backdrop: Designing a dust extraction system (LEV) with a branched junction. What principles allow for the calculation of volume flow rate and pressure at the inlets if the volume flow rate and ...
0
votes
0answers
160 views

A question on charge renormalization in QED

Let us work with charge renormalization in QED. Consider 2-point photon correlation function $\Pi_2(q^2)$ at one loop level. We normalize the coupling constant at $q^2=0$ (point of normalization). ...
2
votes
2answers
147 views

Would a magnetic rod through Mars shield it from solar wind?

Would a magnetic rod going all the way through Mars shield it from solar wind?
2
votes
1answer
263 views

What are the odds of 2012 DA14 hitting a satellite or the moon?

Asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass by close to Earth. Very close. So close, in fact, that it's inside the orbit of the moon and even inside the orbit of geostationary satellites, as shown by this ...
2
votes
1answer
134 views

Magnetic field line length

If I had a magnetic bar in space that was 2cm wide and 2cm high and was one Earth diameter long and had the same magnetic strength as the Earth, would the distribution of field lines be the same ...
0
votes
3answers
158 views

How do I determine where I can no longer hear sound?

A teacher stands well back from an outside doorway that is 95 cm wide and blows a frequency of 600 Hz. The door faces north. Assume the speed of sound is 340 m/s and that there are no reflections. At ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Reflected light from pulsars

If I point one telescope at a pulsar and record the image and then I point a second telescope at a mirror that has the image of the pulsar on it and record it, will the two recordings be different? ...
1
vote
1answer
145 views

Redshift and shapes of galaxies

How does peculiar velocities lead to the observed elongation of galaxy clusters in redshift space, otherwise known as the Fingers of God effect? I have read the relevant Wikipedia page, but cannot ...
4
votes
3answers
535 views

Room temperature and fan orientation [duplicate]

So I'm in a tiny dorm room and I normally point my fan blowing outside the window to cool my room off. I've been in some debates on blowing air out or in is more effective, so I'm hoping to get some ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Does photon have size measurement because of its particle nature

Does photon have size measurement because of its particle nature like electron's 3.86*10^-13m etc..
2
votes
0answers
157 views

Semiflexible discrete polymer chain

Suppose we have a 2D polymer model described by a set of 2D vectors {$\mathbf{t}_i$} ($i=1,2,\dots N$) of length $a$. The energy of the polymer is given by: $$ ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Minimizing potential energy of a dipole in an electric field

My test paper asked me which way a dipole should be orientated in an electric field to minimize its potential energy. My answer was that the dipole should lie parallel to the electric field with the ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Validity of Bogoliubov transformation

In condensed matter physics, one often encounter a Hamiltonian of the form $$\mathcal{H}=\sum_{\bf{k}} \begin{pmatrix}a_{\bf{k}}^\dagger & a_{-\bf{k}}\end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix}A_{\bf{k}} ...

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