0
votes
2answers
2k views

Why are tensions in the pulley different when the pulley has a mass or moment of inertia?

When two blocks are connected by a string passing over a pulley whose moment of inertia is given (means pulley is not massless) then why does the string not have same tensions?
0
votes
1answer
164 views

Why do $H$ and $L^2$ commute in spherically symmetric potential?

In this PDF document (a lecture by Shivaly Reddy, page 13), he says that $L^2$ is independent of $r$; therefore it commutes with any function of $r$. This seems related to a problem in ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

What do people mean with a vev=diag( -2,-2,-2,-2,-2,-2,3,3,3,3)?

For example, in this paper on page 21 the authors write the vev that breaks $SO(10)$ to $SU(4)\times SU(2) \times SU(2)$ $$ <54>= 1/5 \cdot diag( -2,-2,-2,-2,-2,-2,3,3,3,3) \omega_s$$ where ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

What is meant by invariant under change of coordinates **to first order**?

I am studying elementary Lagrangian mechanics, and I'm a bit confused about the what's meant by invariance of the Lagrangian under change of coordinates to first order. More specifically, Noether's ...
8
votes
10answers
3k views

How to explain independence of momentum and energy conservation in elementary terms?

I'm trying to explain to someone learning elementary physics (16 year old) that linear momentum and energy are conserved independently. I'm not a professional physicist and haven't tried to explain ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Fixing time in Feynman phase space path integral

The phase space version of Feynman's path integral expression for the free particle propagator involves a (formal) sum over paths in phase space with fixed $q$ endpoints and (as far as I'm aware) ...
1
vote
2answers
26 views

How are aberration levels measured?

I was reading reading the paper: Predicting subjective judgment of best focus with objective image quality metrics when I come across this statement: Through-focus visual acuity (VA) was ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

Parity of $n$-photon system

The $C$-parity (charge conjugation) of an $n$-photon system is given by $(-1)^n$. If I'm not totally wrong, the intrinsic parity of a photon is $(-1)$. What is the parity $P$ of a system of $n$ ...
0
votes
2answers
145 views

How is hydrogen stored in hydrogen bombs?

Fusion bombs obviously fuse hydrogen atoms, using the pressure from a fission bomb. But how much hydrogen does it contain, and how is it stored? AFAIK hydrogen easily drops its electron and escapes as ...
3
votes
0answers
229 views

Is it possible to calculate the work function of a metal with basic lab equipment?

ive been given a problem in physics, its to prove if a lump of metal we have been given is real gold or not. one way to to do it would be to work out its density, which is fairly easy, mass/volume. ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

Why is the tensor product $n \otimes n = 1$ for $SO(n)$ not the usual scalar product?

For concreteness let's consider $SO(4)$. The quantum numbers for the four states in the fundamental representations are (schematically) $$ (1, 1) ,(-1, 1) ,(1, -1) ,(-1, -1 )$$ thus $$ 4= ...
1
vote
4answers
140 views

Why spinning a pen makes it easier to remove it from the stand?

I have a ballpoint pen stand on my desk. The pens are held inside their caps with the point down, like this one (but not as fancy): If I try to simply pull up one pen, the friction between cap and ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

baryon acoustic oscillation

I have one question about baryon acoustic oscillation. I understand why we should have the baryon-photon fluid sound wave before recombination: Suppose we have a spherical overdense region. This ...
0
votes
3answers
253 views

Why is moment of inertia for a point same as a ring

The moment of inertia of a point and ring are both $m R^2$. It is interesting that the formula for moment of inertia is exactly the same for both. Is there any physical reason why this is the case? I ...
0
votes
2answers
147 views

Asymmetry in magnetic field direction of an electric wire

The simplest magnetic field is that of an infinitely long wire with uniform current. It does enjoy radial symmetry about the wire and has the variation as 1/r. To find the direction of the resulting ...
1
vote
0answers
88 views

Any textbook about non-renormalizability of gravity?

I have learned general relativity in a graduate-level. My knowledge about QFT is very rudimentary. But, I need to learn about non-renormalizability of gravity. I have these questions. Is there any ...
5
votes
4answers
562 views

Is it possible to surpass the diffraction limit for telescopes?

Telescopes have angular diffraction limit depending on the observed wavelength and aperture diameter. I've read that it's possible to go beyond the limit for microscopes. But is it possible to do the ...
2
votes
0answers
150 views

Charge conjugation matrix in baryon current

In his paper Calculation of baryon masses in quantum chromodynamics (ScienceDirect), B.L. Ioffe considers currents describing baryons. In equation (13) he gives an interpolating current for the isobar ...
1
vote
2answers
334 views

Using sinusoids to represent sound waves

Having some free time, I've begun a mini-project attempting to understand how music works in more detail, which has so far only involved music theory and a bit of set theory. I'm now trying to get my ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Can everything be described without anything needing to actually “bend”? [closed]

Is space bending because gravity actually causes small particles to move differently? If large source of gravity is somewhere are particles extending towards it, creating a "bend" in space? So "bend" ...
0
votes
2answers
121 views

Why is a sine wave considered the fundamental building block of any signal? Why not some other function? [closed]

It is mathematically possible to express a given signal as a sum of functions other than sines and cosines. With that in mind, why does signal processing always revolve around breaking down the signal ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Is Dark Energy and or Dark Matter directly proportional to EMR? [closed]

Is Dark Energy directly proportional to Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR)?
2
votes
2answers
979 views

error propagation with an integral

My question here is about how to determine the error of an integral given individual uncertainties in two parameters defining the function being integrated. I used a curve fitting function to ...
0
votes
4answers
437 views

How did we disprove aether wind?

We know that the universe is not vacuum. The average temperature of the universe is 3° above absolute zero. So some "aether" really exists, but that is not some gas with very low density, but ...
0
votes
1answer
136 views

Detecting molecules in space?

http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2012/02/24/nasa-detects-solid-buckyballs-in-space/ I refer to the above article, which mentions that buckyballs "far smaller than the width of a hair" were ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Traveling near the speed of light? [duplicate]

Suppose we can travel on a spacecraft near the speed of light, how long it would take for the person on the spacecraft to travel one light year, not to a person observing him/her from Earth, if there ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Work Function Calculation with Local Electrostatic Potential

On the Wikipedia site, it describes the work function equation as W = -e\phi - Ef, where phi is the electrostatic potential of a vacuum nearby the surface of the material. So my question is, how can I ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

What kind of orbit would be needed to map the surface of a nonrotating planet?

I am not a mathematician and it may even take me weeks to understand the math involved but I have an odd question on orbital mechanics that I hope will be worth the experts' time. I am a hobbyist ...
0
votes
0answers
85 views

Vibrating water container problem

I am struggling with visualising and understanding the phrasing of this question - cross posted from Math stack exchange since this forum is more appropriate: "A water-filled container is ...
9
votes
4answers
594 views

Why isn't there a limit for a Euclidean rotation, as for a Minkowski rotation?

From invariance of the Minkowski scalar product, we get the Lorentz transformations. In addition, we get a constant $c$ preventing space-like and time-like intervals being rotated into one another. ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

can any one please explain in simple terms phase change of reflected light

Phase change is used to explain interference in thin films . The concept is not explained there . Does the change in direction by 180 mean phase change ?
14
votes
8answers
3k views

Software for physics calculations

What is some good free software for doing physics calculations? I'm mainly interested in symbolic computation (something like Mathematica, but free).
4
votes
2answers
141 views

How does rotational energy transfer to linear energy?

So I have recently started looking into moments of inertia, and all that stuff. I have come to a question which has a plane inclined at some angle theta and a sphere at the peak. The G.P.E at the top ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

Velocity change of air down a cone?

Does the velocity of fluids(specifically gasses) change when traveling down a cone from the wide opening to the narrow opening? If so, is there an equation used to calculate the acceleration or ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Eliminating IR light reflection perceived by a steep viewing angle

I am having a problem with reflection on an acrylic surface, in the IR part of the spectrum. This reflection is interfering with an algorithm that looks at objects, as it makes two show up when only ...
0
votes
2answers
126 views

“If the astronaut found that light slowed down relative to his motion, he would have detected the very ether wind that Michelson failed to detect”?

The following extract is from Relativity Simply Explained by Martin Gardner (Amazon link): Consider an astronaut in a spaceship that is racing alongside a light beam. The ship is traveling with ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

Eddy currents Vs. Inducing EMF in opposing the change?

In the following circuit there is a power supply applying a voltage(+$V$) to a circuit with resistance ($R$), current($I$) is now flowing in the circuit, and there is a movable part like so: The ...
-1
votes
1answer
89 views

The Riemannian Curvature in Deformations

Is there a direct correlation between the Riemannian Curvature tensor and the deformation gradient tensor in continuum mechanics?
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Will the gravitational pull of air affect the falling rate of an object?

After looking at this question: Don't heavier objects actually fall faster because they exert their own gravity? A thought occurred to me that due to the increased gravitational pull of the ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Do the eigenstates of the Pauli operators correspond to the six directions of the 3D world?

I understand that the six eigenstates of the three Pauli operators $X, Y, Z$ correspond to the six poles of the Bloch sphere. By fixing an orthonormal basis of our physical word, does "measuring Pauli ...
0
votes
0answers
137 views

When to use lateral magnification vs angular magnification?

What is the essential difference between lateral and angular magnification (like why do we need to use both and when do we use which)? Also, is there a relationship between the two magnifications?
2
votes
3answers
142 views

How does the conductor knows which side is outside?

For a electrostatic equilibrium state, we know charges only stay on the outer surface of the conductor. But, how does the conductor know which side is outside? If it's about the curvature, then ...
1
vote
1answer
129 views

Flow in diverging channel is unstable according to Bernoulli's equation

So let's say we have a circular pipe with a variable cross section with an inviscid incompressible fluid flowing through it. The areas of the two ends are $A_1$ and and $A_2$. Let's say we also ...
0
votes
1answer
125 views

Faster than speed of light [duplicate]

I was watching a Physics TV show, When someone called Alex Filippenko said that when there was the Big Bang, the Space extended at a speed faster than speed of light. He said that it wasn't against ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Number of classical oscillation modes of a Lattice and number of quantum phonons

In solving the Classical model for lattice dynamics [Rossler pag 38] we find that the lattice admits $$d\cdot N\cdot r = \#modes$$ where $d=$dimension of the problem $N=$ number of atoms $r=$ ...
0
votes
3answers
326 views

Question about intensity of EM waves

For electromagnetic wave if it's reflected from a perfect conductor standing wave can be form. I wonder why Poynting vector can be used to describe the intensity of standing EM wave. (see p.19 of ...
5
votes
3answers
343 views

Is it true that spring has more force acting on it at its positive maximum amplitude than than at the negative one?

Am I missing something? It seems obvious to me that at $+A$ and $-A$, the spring has restorative forces equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. But since gravity is always pulling it down, ...
0
votes
2answers
185 views

How are standing waves a result of constructive and destructive interferences?

For constructive I can understand. But destructive I can't. I can not picture the shape of two pulses or waves maybe that form the resulting standing wave. The places where waves are canceled just ...
3
votes
2answers
153 views

Square root of a matrix appears in massive gravity. How to solve $\sqrt{A+B}$ perturbatively

$A=\text{diag}\{\lambda_1,...,\lambda_n\}$, where $\lambda_i$ can be any number and not necessarily a small number, $\lambda_i>0$, $B$ is a positive definite symmetric matrix, and ...
4
votes
0answers
120 views

Angle sum of triangle in Schwarzschild solution

Curvature of space is often intuitively explained as angles of a triangle not adding up to 180 degrees. My questions concerns that. Suppose you have a perfectly spherical star of uniform density - so ...

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