2
votes
2answers
2k views

Do photons actually generate a slight kinetic force?

My question is even though photons have no (rest) mass, do they emit a external force due to EM radiation causing electrons to be excited and jump to higher energy shells which electrons have mass ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Static Friction in Free Body Diagram (FBD) of Car parked on Incline

I'm working on a sample problem and it asks on how steep of an incline can a car park? From what I learned the friction is in the opposite direction if there was motion in said friction-less ...
2
votes
3answers
379 views

Vacuum-ether and spacetime

In the past you could not give an explanation for various phenomena in which there was an action at a distance, like magnetism or gravity, that occurred in a vacuum; For this reason, ether was ...
2
votes
3answers
610 views

Explanation on the resulting forces of two positive point charges

Why will the resulting force lines of two positive point charges be like this: I would expect this:
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Why do fractal systems show power-law behavior?

I'm not sure I quite understand why systems with fractal systems show power-law behavior. My "gut" understanding is that the power-law index indicates the correct scaling factor for the system so that ...
2
votes
1answer
247 views

Relationship between a formal vector derivative and time evolution of an operator

I'm an undergraduate in physics, with all the lack of knowledge inherent in that. In two of my classes, my professors introduced two equations which look eerily similar. The first, from general ...
2
votes
1answer
236 views

Electric force on spherical surface

I have a doubt about electrical forces on surfaces, for instance, on the surface of a sphere. I'll explain my point: let's say we have some spherical surface of unit radius and there's one point ...
2
votes
3answers
611 views

Effective operator in four-fermion interaction

In one book, I have got the following lines which I found myself unable to understand what is effective operator? The paragraph is given below: The weak interaction describes nuclear beta decay, ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

In the expansion of the scattered wave function, why do these two functions have the same index?

See Griffiths Quantum Mechanics, eq. 11.21. Evidently, $$\psi(r,\theta,\phi)=Ae^{ikz}+A\sum\limits_{l,m}^{\infty}C_{l,m}h_{l}(kr)Y_{l}^{m}(\theta,\phi).$$ But I don't see why the $l$th Hankel function ...
2
votes
1answer
239 views

Rewriting Creation and Annihilation Operators

I am playing with the Landau Level problem and Algebraic solutions to it. I am given $$a=\frac{l_{b}}{\sqrt{2}\hbar}(\pi_{x}-i\pi_{y}) ...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

What happens at the moment black hole is created?

Suppose a body has just enough matter in it that just 1 more electron could turn it into a blackhole. When this happens, where does all that matter go?
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Deriving the Sommerfeld expansion by contour integration (Le Bellac p. 277)

In Le Bellac's statistical physics book he derives the Sommerfeld expansion by a contour integral. The idea is to expand integrals of the type $I(\beta)\equiv \int_{0}^{\infty}d\epsilon\, ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Under what condition charges do not flow in closed circuit?

I wanted to ask under what conditions will charges not flow in a closed circuit. Or when is current through the circuit zero even when an EMF is applied? Like in the case of potentiometer, we say that ...
2
votes
3answers
186 views

Formalities of the variational integral

Usually when the variational principle is introduced one starts by defining a Lagrangian density $${\mathscr L}(x,\phi(x),\partial_{\mu}\phi(x))$$ and an action $$S[\phi]=\int_R d(x) {\mathscr L}$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

Solution of motion in hamiltonian formalism

I have these canonical equations: $$\dot p = - \alpha pq$$ $$ \dot q =\frac{1}{2} \alpha q^2$$ I have to find $q(t)$ and p$(t)$, considering initial conditions $p_0$ and $q_0$. I thought to simply ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Positive test charge

Protons have positive charge on them. Protons aren't mobile. So how can a positive test charge move from the negative terminal of a cell to the positive terminal and gain electric potential energy? ...
2
votes
2answers
170 views

How accurate are our calculations about distant stars keeping in mind their enormous distances?

Since many stars are hundreds of light years away from the Earth and therefore, what we observe of them today is really their distant past, how can we say anything with certainty about their ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Best way to move teaspoon to dissolve sugar in a cup of tea

I know that there is asked questions about something like cooling down cope of coffee..etc, but this one is little different. My friend was watching TV program of English eating etiquette, and they ...
2
votes
2answers
571 views

Entropy exchange of a free fall

I have a problem in which the tell me that you drop a bag of 50 kg of sand from 10 meters high, and you have to caltulate the entropy difference of the sand, asuming that the speific heat of the sand ...
2
votes
2answers
520 views

What are the “loopholes” in past Bell's theorem experiments?

I am intrigued by the following Phys.org article: Researchers began using photons in 1980s to test Bell's theory and determine if Einstein's reasoning is right or wrong. Since then, researchers ...
2
votes
1answer
213 views

Which theory predicts that dubbed tires have more friction?

The physical reasoning I suppose could be that more contact areas mean more and higher friction. But is there an actual formula or a more mathematical explanation? Application for bicycling was my ...
2
votes
1answer
486 views

Does special relativity unify the two phenomena at the base of Faraday's flux law (was Feynman wrong in this case)?

Consider Faraday's flux law for the EMF generated in a conductor loop: $$ \varepsilon = - \frac{d \phi}{dt},$$ where $\varepsilon$ is the EMF, and $\phi$ is the magnetic flux through the loop. ...
2
votes
2answers
166 views

How should I simulate the electric potential field from a wavefunction?

I was interested in making what I thought would be a simple simulation of an electron encountering a positron by numerically solving the Schrodinger equation over several time steps, but I've run ...
2
votes
1answer
978 views

Theoretical power limit of nuclear bomb

Is there any limits of power or power to mass (or any other) limits for nuclear bombs? I found this wiki article: Nuclear weapon yield: Yield limits. Is the information provided is correct? If yes, ...
2
votes
2answers
99 views

Is it part of special relativity that mass possessing energy is more dense?

I was reading http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/hillis/hillis_p2.html and it says that a charged battery weighs more than a dead one or a rotating object weighs more than a stationary one (i.e. mass ...
2
votes
2answers
896 views

Constructing the exponential form of a unitary operator

I think I've got this figured out but wanted to make sure I'm doing this right. Working with operators that satisfy bosonic commutation relations $[b,b^\dagger] = 1$, I define a very general unitary ...
2
votes
1answer
314 views

Swimming and forces

I was told that the total integral of the stress over the surface of a swimmer (i.e. the total force exerted by the swimmer on the fluid) always vanishes, because there are no external forces applied ...
2
votes
1answer
279 views

Does the Earth rotate the same encased in ice during the height of an Ice Age as it does when the bulk of it's water is liquid and always in motion?

Ice Age vs. Now. Does the Earth rotate at the same rate when encased in ice during the height of an Ice Age as it does when the bulk of it's water is liquid and always in motion?
2
votes
1answer
503 views

Lifetimes of stable particles

What are possible lifetimes of up/down quarks, electronic/muonic/tau neutrinos, photon, gluon? I understand they are said to be stable, but, as I saw on wikipedia, the lower bound for the "stable" ...
2
votes
2answers
8k views

How do transformers work?

A transformer is basically a primary inductor connected to a voltage $U_P$ which you want to transform. You also have an iron rod and a secondary inductor. So when there is a current $I_P$ the iron ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Is Schrödinger’s cat misleading? And what would happen if Planck constant is bigger?

Schrödinger’s cat, the thought experiment, makes it seem like as if measurement can cause a system to stop being in a superposition of states and become either one of the states (collapsed). So does ...
2
votes
2answers
721 views

Vector Potential and Gauge Invariance in Quantum Mechanics

In classical electromagnetism, we are allowed to use gauge invariance through the argument that the only physical observable fields are the $E$-field and the $B$-field. So in that sense the scalar ...
2
votes
3answers
231 views

Quantum mechanics in macroscopic systems

I don't understand the superposition principle in quantum mechanics or the collapse of wave-function (I think it's impossible for me to understand it) My question is: Is it possible to demonstrate ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Question about linacs

Why are the electrodes of a linac connected to an alternating voltage? Within an electrode the electron moves with a constant speed, and once it is outside of the electrode it accelerates uniformly, ...
2
votes
2answers
630 views

Is 't Hooft's Determinism based on the holographic principle?

Does 't Hooft's determinism work need the holographic principle in order to work or is it just an extension of his work?
2
votes
2answers
147 views

Eutectic systems behavior near 100%-0% composition and low temperature

I can't understand why in this phase diagram , in the area where the system is approaching the 100% $\alpha$ or 100% $\beta$ composition, the state is just a pure solid. I mean, where does the ...
2
votes
2answers
4k views

Mobility in semiconductors

Good afternoon everybody. I am reading on a book about semiconductor mobility. I have fully understood the definition, but I also noticed that often one talks about high or low mobility. My question ...
2
votes
1answer
212 views

Radioactivity and quantum superpositions

In the Schrödinger's cat experiment 'there is a tiny bit of radioactive substance, so small that perhaps in the course of the hour, one of the atoms decays'. The rest of the experiment magnifies this ...
2
votes
1answer
656 views

Canonical transformation and Hamilton's equations

I was trying to prove, that for a transformation to be Canonical, one must have a relationship: $$ \left\{ Q_a,P_i \right\} = \delta_{ai} $$ Where $Q_a = Q_a(p_i,q_i)$ and $P_a = P_a(p_i,q_i)$. Now ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Is time speeding up due to the expansion of space?

If we just look at our local galactic cluster, if all of the galaxies that are a part of it are moving away from each other, and so the overall 'density' of the strength of gravity in the cluster is ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Does altitude affect sound pitch?

Due to differences in air pressure, temperature, and other factors, the speed of sound varies with altitude on Earth. Does this affect the pitch of the sound in any meaningful way? For example, if I ...
2
votes
3answers
382 views

Is the path of stationary action unique? What are the physical implications of $L_{\dot{x}}=L_x$

Below, for any function $Q$ the notation $Q_x$ means $\frac{\partial Q}{\partial x}$, and $Q_{xx}$ means $\frac{\partial^2 Q}{\partial x^2}$. In physics, the trajectory of a particle is given by the ...
2
votes
1answer
253 views

Vertical Load Reactions On A Ramp

Hello, I'm working on a small hardware project. I have two load sensors located at distance $S_1$ ($x=0$) and $S_2$. Assuming we ignore the weight of the ramp ... What is the load on $S_1$ and ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

Rolling bowling ball with slipping

If a bowling ball is moving with some initial velocity while slipping, how far will it move before it begins to roll once it experiences static friction? $\ddot{x} = \mu_{kf}g$ And there is also a ...
2
votes
2answers
892 views

How does scattering work?

Why is the sky blue? I was always taught in high school that light with wavelength $\lambda$ acts like a little particle that wiggles up and down through space (in proportion to its magnitude). I was ...
2
votes
1answer
137 views

Obtaining the conserved current of the Lagrangian making the parameter depending on $x$

To calculate the conserved current due to an internal symmetry of the system (expressed by the Lagrangian density) we can proceed as follows: if it is invariant under $\delta \phi = \alpha \phi$, ...
2
votes
1answer
568 views

Limitations of drag equation

The magnitude of the air resistance for objects with Reynolds numbers greater than 1000 is given by the formula: Why it does not hold for objects with lower Reynolds numbers? Can I use this ...
2
votes
1answer
997 views

Feynman Rules for massive vector boson interactions

I am stuck at the beginning of a problem where I am given an interaction term that modifies the regular QED Lagrangian. It involves the interaction between a photon field and a massive vector boson: ...
2
votes
4answers
599 views

The building blocks of energy

I have a couple of related questions that have been bothering me for a while. They might sound unscientific, but here is goes: What are the building blocks of energy? What does energy consist of? Is ...
2
votes
2answers
273 views

Gravitation force- Attraction and repulsion

Gravitation force is always attractive. Now assume(not a practical one): I took our Earth in my hand and started shaking up and down. This will create a disturbance in space-time warp and it moves ...

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