5
votes
2answers
82 views

Does a reflection still transfer momentum to an mirror?

I have been recently wondering, if I take a powerful enough energy source (photon) and I have an perfect mirror exactly in front of it and assume an "emitter" shot the light towards the mirror. As ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Polchinski equation 4.3.16

I am trying to obtain the polchinski's equation 4.3.16 which is following $ Q_B^2 = \frac{1}{2}\{ Q_B, Q_B \} = -\frac{1}{2}g^{K}_{IJ}g^{M}_{KL}c^Ic^Jc^L b_M =0$ Where $ Q_B = C^I(G_I^m ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Photovoltaic IV data

I am looking for any available measured solar-cell datasets (Voltage/Current) especially for organic photovoltaic cells for the testing of a software unfortunately I am unable to get the measured ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Do thermo-electrons have an initial kinetic energy of 0 J? [on hold]

Just seeking clarification to whether thermo-electrons have an initial kinetic energy of 0 Joules. Thanks!
2
votes
4answers
2k views

What is negative Energy/Exotic Energy?

So I have been researching around a little as I am highly interested in Astrophysics and I came across an energy I have never heard of before; negative energy also commonly known as exotic energy. Now ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

What is considered 100% efficiency when talking about photovoltaic cells?

I was reading this article in Popular Science and figured that I actually don't know what is considered 100% efficiency. Is it when every photon that hits the cell kicks out an electron that is ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Relationship of multiple particles under collision [on hold]

Consider 3 particles. All 3 particles travel along the x-axis. The 1st particle possesses some mass, m, and its initial position is somewhere on the negative x-axis. It has some (positive) velocity ...
2
votes
2answers
162 views

When recombination in PN junction occurs, which atom becomes an ion?

In an unbiased PN junction, when the carriers recombine to form a depletion layer , it is said that immobile ions are formed. We know that the conduction band electrons in N type are not associated ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

computer power supply unit PSU [on hold]

If I take the 5v line output from a computer PSU, what would be the Amperage available. I want the supply power to a circuit that says 3 amp max. How can I limit this. Thanks
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Conservation of linear momentum, when is it conserved?

Will Linear momentum be conserved in a non-inertial frame of reference? In other words what is the fundamental condition for linear momentum to be conserved? Also which is more fundamental- Newton's ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

How to solve this steady flow problem? [on hold]

Consider a steady Flow of air through a insulated porous plug. Air enters the plug at 100 kPa and 150m/s and leaves the plug at 50 kPa. Assuming air to be ideal gas and neglect potential energy ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

How can I calculate the center of an object relative to a focal point and a moving observer? [on hold]

I'm developing an app that contains a 3D scene which the user can navigate. As the user moves it gives the illusion that you are browsing a real landscape but for the illusion to work I need to know ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Why does a green glass block more UVA/B rays than a blue one?

Why does a green glass block more UVA/B rays than a blue one? White glass blocks 36%, blu 43% and green glass blocks most UVA rays. That is why beer and olive oil bottles are green, they say. Edit: ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Slit width for minimum spot size in electron slit diffraction if involving uncertainity principle

I don't believe the following is an accurate description of the physical but a homework problem to help understanding. A beam of electron of energy 0.025 eV moving along x-direction, passes ...
1
vote
3answers
143 views

Definition of Electromagnetic field?

Definition of Electromagnetic field? What is the Electromagnetic field at a given point in space due to a point charge being accelerated non-uniformly? Is there a single equation that can give me ...
1
vote
2answers
35 views

Snells Law: Does the $k$ vector change on the boundary between mediums?

I was using Waves - Berkley Physics Volume III, and in explaining Snell's Law the author claims that as a wave is on the boundary between glass and air (going from glass to air) that the number of ...
0
votes
2answers
77 views

The charm of the gyroscope [on hold]

I am fascinated by the gyroscope, like everyboy who was so lucky as to get such a toy as a kid. But probably also grown-ups are not immune to its charm. I am not asking for a theoretical explanation. ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

FVM discretisation [on hold]

I am trying to solve a 1d cooling problem by using the Finite Difference Method and explicit method. General Background: The left side (West side) of my domain is insulated (dT/dx = 0), while the ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Stress in horizontal bars

Imagine we have an horizontal bar. My teacher expresses the tensions along the longitudinal axis by this way $\sigma_{xx}=A(x)y+B(x)$ He doesn't give any motivation behind this. So, is this general? ...
0
votes
3answers
198 views

In what situations do water levels not reach equilibrium?

I have been taught that water levels will always equal out. However, now I find that sumps and some other setups allow for water not to become equal. What other arrangements allow for the water levels ...
0
votes
2answers
106 views

Calculating states of entangled and disentangled qubits

I'm writing a quantum computer simulator (about 8 qubits) and I know most of the basics (i.e. how to calculate the effect of a quantum gate on a qubit). But I have hit a wall. Is it possible, with ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

Thomas - Fermi screening

I read in Ashcroft & Mermin's Solid State text that for the Thomas-Fermi approximation to be applicable, the external potential needs to be "slowly varying," What does it mean for a function (in ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

What makes an abstract physical system describable by a “fluid” equations of motion?

We can describe (some of) the dynamics of many systems using fluid mechanics. Of course these include classical fluids like water, more exotic fluids like photon gases and the universe as a whole and ...
9
votes
4answers
825 views

What is the relation between (physicists) functional derivatives and Fréchet derivatives

I´m wondering how can one get to the definition of Functional Derivative found on most Quantum Field Theory books: $$\frac{\delta F[f(x)]}{\delta f(y) } = \lim_{\epsilon \rightarrow 0} ...
4
votes
2answers
155 views

If atoms have specific energy levels, why do opaque solids absorb all visible light, not just some? [duplicate]

Here's my question: if atoms have well defined energy levels and those differences correspond to the frequencies of light that can be absorbed, how is it that opaque objects absorb all or most visible ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Trapping an electron

Imagine that one could theoretically trap a single electron in a small box, with walls that somehow prevent the electron from passing through and out of the box. Now, the box begins to move in on ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

Energy and momentum as partial derivatives of on-shell action in field theory

According to L&L, if we fix the initial position of a particle at a given time and consider the on-shell action as a function of the final coordinates and time, $S(q_1, \ldots, q_n, t)$, then... ...
2
votes
1answer
140 views

Sum of forces with liquid in rotation

It's not homework (I'm teacher). I would like to compute sum of forces on this study : The shape is symmetrical like that I'm sure the center of gravity is in the center of the shape. I compute ...
0
votes
3answers
488 views

Can every particle be regarded as being a combination of Black holes and White holes?

Can the statement be regarded as true? That every particle, or element in the universe can be regarded as a combination of black hole and white hole in variable proportion.
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Absorption of waves in a plasma

Suppose a plasma has characteristic frequency $\omega_p$. Since $$n = \sqrt{\left(1-\frac{\omega_p^2}{\omega^2}\right)} $$ For $\omega<\omega_p$, the refractive index will be imaginary - which ...
9
votes
4answers
446 views

Is the second law of thermodynamics a fundamental law, or does it emerge from other laws?

My question is basically this. Is the second law of thermodynamics a fundamental, basic law of physics, or does it emerge from more fundamental laws? Let's say I was to write a massive computer ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Specific differential equation in RLC circuit

I have been studying differential equations in RLC circuits: (a generator with fixed EMF $=E$,a capacitor $C$, an inductor with inductance $L$ and internal resistance $r$, and a separate resistor ...
0
votes
3answers
2k views

The direction of friction for a car wheel

In this particular example shown the image below (from engineering dynamics - Meriam), I do not figure out why the direction of friction is in direction of the translation of the car? Or I just ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Gravity and the Second Law of Thermodynamics [duplicate]

I was wondering about the hypothetical - and apparently improbable - heat death of the Universe when I stumbled upon this seeming contradiction. A certain volume of space with a uniform distribution ...
0
votes
1answer
118 views

What is the meaning of electron's magnetic effect cancelling each other?

I'm trying to understand, why magnets attract certain metals but not objects made out of paper, plastic etc. And the answer I got is "in paper, electrons cancel each other". What does it mean?
6
votes
2answers
5k views

What is a complete book for quantum field theory?

I am searching for a complete and comprehensive book for QFT. What is, in your opinion, a good one?
2
votes
3answers
213 views

Can I make a rod in the vertical plane move with its one end on the ground in a slanting position?

Consider a rod kept vertically on the ground. I keeps the rod in a slanting position making some angle with the horizontal. Can I now move this rod along the horizontal plane by applying a force at ...
3
votes
0answers
36 views

How to find tension in the cantilever brakes?

In the left side example of cantilever brakes, how do I find the tension in strings DE and DC, in terms of T. According to me applying force balance equations, horizontal and vertical forces should ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Cavity dynamics from traveling waves to standing waves

This is a question on mathematical physics. The conventional reasoning about the characteristic wave modes in a cavity is to apply the boundary conditions, namely, wave amplitude is equal to 0, and ...
4
votes
0answers
58 views

Can you gauge a $U(1)_L$ symmetry?

I recently calculating the one loop correction for the propagator of a gauge boson, $\hspace{5cm}$ I assumed arbitrary left and right couplings, $ g _L $ and $ g _R $. I found that the one loop ...
4
votes
4answers
320 views

Are Lorentz transformations linear transformations? [duplicate]

My textbook says that Lorentz transformations are linear transformations and present them as matrices. Lorentz transformations relate different coordinate systems with each other. It seems that ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

number of gravitons launched by a proton

The wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_bosons describes how in QM exchanges of gauge bosons carry force, and describes how the graviton may also be a gauge boson. If the observable ...
14
votes
5answers
564 views

Applications of Geometric Topology to Theoretical Physics

Geometric topology is the study of manifolds, maps between manifolds, and embeddings of manifolds in one another. Included in this sub-branch of Pure Mathematics; knot theory, homotopy, manifold ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

How does one interpret the 'per unit area' in numbers like tensile strength?

How does one interpret the numbers when reading data about tensile strength, yield strength, and the likes? Say for example reinforcing bars. Grade 40 Rebars are rated at 70,000 PSI for its ultimate ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Calculate heat transfer out of a basement

I am thinking it should be possible to calculate heat loss out of basement based on the temperature of the walls, but am not sure how to do it (what the equations are). For example, lets say the ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Gravitational acceleration at half Earth's radius [duplicate]

What would be the gravitational acceleration at half at Earth's radius? Something tells me it should be proportional to the mass distributed in that part, but I am not sure. Of course, we assume we ...
8
votes
2answers
438 views

What is the closest general-relativistic equivalent of a “time slice”?

In a newtonian universe, one can talk of a "time slice", that is, the state of the universe at a given point in (global) time. In a "typical" classical universe, a time slice would contain enough ...
8
votes
1answer
186 views

Materials with different gravitomagnetic permeability?

If you start with general relativity, and assume small perturbations around a nearly flat metric, it is possible to obtain linearized equations of gravity that look a lot like Maxwell's equations, ...
8
votes
2answers
411 views

The shape of speaker cones

This is related to another question I just asked, but they are different enough I thought it deserved its own spot. Speaker elements seem to always be shaped like a cone with a portion of a sphere at ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

How to make charges of a charged conductor evenly distributed over the surface of the object?

Is there a way to make the charges of a charged conductor evenly distributed over the surface? I know the charges of a charged insulator are evenly distributed but I want to know that if there is a ...

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