2
votes
0answers
21 views

Does the surface of austenitic steels have an especially “dynamic” phase somewhere between 100 and 200 Celsius?

There is lots of kitchen lore about pans. One popular concept are the "pores" of a steel pan surface, which are the reason why food sticks to the pan when it's not heated properly. I don't know much ...
1
vote
2answers
80 views

Does spacetime have a “mass” value? or What is “Spacetime” made out of?

When measuring the MASS within the Universe, does "space" or "spacetime" have a value? I only ask, because when speaking of expansion, space is expanding. Could it be possible, to reverse the ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Space formed by dot products of three vectors [migrated]

Suppose I have 3 3D unit vectors $\mathbf{v}_1$, $\mathbf{v}_2$, and $\mathbf{V}$. I define the three corresponding scalars $u_1=\mathbf{v}_1 \cdot \mathbf{V}$, $u_2=\mathbf{v}_2 \cdot \mathbf{V}$, ...
3
votes
1answer
143 views

What is the average mass of galaxies according to Hubble Deep and Ultra Deep field observations?

It is very widely known among people interested in astronomy that there are 100-400 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy and there are ~ 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe, which is ...
3
votes
3answers
125 views

Time slowed by gravity

If time moves more slowly on Earth (due to our proximity to a gravitational body) than for someone orbiting Earth in a spaceship, yet the opposite occurs in the frequently cited "twin paradox" of the ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Massless boson in 2D and its (retarded) propagator

I have the retarded propagator for a free scalar field in 1+1 dimensions. Inside the light cone, this looks like $J_0(m \sqrt(t^2-x^2))$, J being a Bessel function. When I take the massless limit, ...
33
votes
9answers
2k views

Why are differential equations for fields in physics of order two?

What is the reason for the observation that across the board fields in physics are generally governed by second order (partial) differential equations? If someone on the street would flat out ask ...
4
votes
2answers
157 views
+50

How did the operators come about?

This relates a little bit to my previous question (Experimentally, what categorizes a measurement as corresponding to a certain observable?), but it's different in a way and more historical. One of ...
-2
votes
0answers
30 views

Convert angular position to wavelength [on hold]

Can you convert angular position to wavelength in spectroscopy? I need know if it's possible. I don't have too much experience in this subject.
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Can interacting Hamiltonians always be written in second quantized form?

Is it always possible to write interacting Hamiltonian in a second quantized matrix form like we do it for non-interacting form $$H=\sum _{\alpha\beta}C_\alpha^\dagger h_{\alpha\beta} C_\beta$$ ...
5
votes
5answers
284 views

The gravitational constant $G$ theoretically?

We know all that the gravitational constant is $$G=6.67428±0.00067\times 10^{-11}m^{3} kg^{-1} s^{-1}.$$ But can we calculate it theoretically?
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Diffraction grating from first principles

I have realised that a lot of books and online resources fail to give a detailed treatment of the derivation of the diffraction grating interference pattern. Normally only the result is stated. I was ...
5
votes
1answer
232 views

Solving Special Function Equations Using Lie Symmetries

The lie group + representation theory approach to special functions & how they solve the ode's arising in physics is absolutely amazing. I've given an example of it's power below on Bessel's ...
35
votes
9answers
4k views

How would night sky look like if the speed of light was infinite?

Would it be brighter? Different color? Gravitational lensing? Would black holes exist?
9
votes
3answers
797 views

How can we interpret polarization and frequency when we are dealing with one single photon?

If polarization is interpreted as a pattern/direction of the electric-field in an electromagnetic wave and the frequency as the frequency of oscillation, how can we interpret polarization and ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Confusion about conduction of electricity in a solution

I'm trying to unserstannd conduction of electricity in a solution. Is it correct that anions give their extra electrons to the anode, which transfers the electrons to the cathode, where the cations ...
-2
votes
0answers
38 views

Time travel, could it destroy the Universe? [on hold]

One Universe, One mass. In order for "Mass" to be created, (not matter, not energy, but MASS) a creation point where new mass is Incorporated must exist. No "creation" point has ever been observed. ...
3
votes
4answers
531 views

How is wind created?

I know that 'blowing air is called wind', but what I don't know is, how is wind created? And I don't want the answer from Google Search. I want to know more about wind at the atomic or molecular ...
0
votes
2answers
36 views

Coupled oscillators and Normal Modes

Consider we have a system consisting of 2 arbitrary masses and 3 arbitrary springs connecting them horizontally and between fixed walls, and we want to obtain the motion of each mass after we input ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

If we rub glass particles with paper , will there be any charge induction in glass particles?

If we rub glass particles with paper , will there be any charge induction in glass particles ? I know if you rub with silk they do get charged, but i want to know specifically for glass and paper.
2
votes
1answer
333 views

Flux Quanta in the Arahanov-Bohm effect

I have been reading about the quantum hall effect during which i had to read about the AB effect used in the Laughlin gauge argument. In many sources, it is directly assumed that the flux quantum in ...
0
votes
1answer
108 views

nuclear physics- Energetics and Mechanics of Nuclear Reaction Homework

A sample of $^{24}_{12}\mathrm{Mg}$ is bombarded by a monoenergetic proton. If the resulting nucleus in a $^{24}_{12}\mathrm{Mg}(p,\gamma)$ reaction; $^{24}_{12}\mathrm{Mg}(p,\gamma)$ has its ...
3
votes
3answers
341 views

What's the difference between “numerical methods” & “mathematical analysis” as said by Feynman in his lectures?

While reading his lectures, I came to these lines: On the basis of Newton's second law of motion,which gives the relation between the acceleration of any body & the force acting on it,any ...
-2
votes
1answer
74 views

Questioning Einstein's view on gravity [duplicate]

Oke, so my mind is blown by Einsteins view on gravity, at least as far as I understand the basics and principles he based his views on. One of the first things that struck me was that most of his ...
-7
votes
1answer
65 views

How can magic be explained with Physics? [on hold]

Assuming that, hypothetically, and for this example only, "magic" means things like magical powers. In movies, games, etc. we witness magic; however, it's never explained how it works with regards ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

Superimposed state vs. zero amplitude state

Two equal amplitude wave pulses approaching each other through some medium such as a string may form a region of zero amplitude when they overlap completely. At this point, the location of overlap is ...
23
votes
3answers
4k views

Is this really a golden ratio spiral?

In this blog post, I found this picture: Tehre are other similar photos: and Does the water really form golden ratio spiral in such cases? Or is the photo just a provocative example, without ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

Angular momentum needn't always change in multiples of $\hbar$?

I read the following claim in Slichter's popular book, Principles of Magnetic Resonance (after Fig. 4.3, it's p100 in this version.). Despite the title, the author claims it in a quite general manner ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Change of vectors [on hold]

We have two vectors $F1$ and $F2$ as shown in figure. The change of vectors is shown as $F2-F1$. Why it is it rather than taking negative of vector $F2$ i.e. $-F2$ and then adding it by head-to-tail ...
5
votes
1answer
202 views
+100

Is quantum gravity, ignoring geometry, the theory of a fictitious force?

This question is motivated by this question and this one, but I will try to write it in such a way that it is not duplicate. In short, I don't understand the motivation for a "quantum theory of ...
0
votes
2answers
19 views

Angular Momentum conservation in star system

This question is related to what happens to a planetary body(like earth) when the star it is orbiting collapses under its own gravity. Suppose a star is rotating about its axis with some angular ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

About the nonlocality of QM and faster-than-light/backward-in-time machines

The fact the quantum mechanics is nonlocal is known already for a long time, since the Bell works (1966 and later) and the Aspect's group experiments confirming the Bell-type CHSH inequality (1980 ...
2
votes
3answers
65 views

Is heat a property of Something?

There are some unique properties of things in our world. For example, charge is a property of mass. Is heat a unique property of something? Can a vacuum/void have a finite amount of heat in it? What ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

How do we find the accuracy of atomic clocks?

We say that atomic clocks are the most accurate clocks ever made, they may lose or gain $x$ seconds in $y$ years. How do we find this uncertainty because we do not have an ideal clock to compare with ...
0
votes
2answers
568 views

Difference resultant aerodynamics force on an airfoil and a flat plate

From basic airfoil theory the following free body diagram can be determined for a two dimensional asymmetric airfoil: Here the direction of the resultant force is governed by the geometry of the ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

String theory uncertainty limit? [duplicate]

Is there an uncertainty limit, constant (if there is a practically viable numerical constant) or not, to string theory? If so, could you explain what it means, the assumptions it has to hold to be ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Dipole approximation in solids

I have seen the use of dipole approximation (where the extent of the wave function is assumed to be much smaller than the wavelengths of the transitions or that of the electromagnetic field applied) ...
0
votes
2answers
14 views

On what parameters is breaking stress dependent?

I have recently studied Elasticity in materials. There was a question about breaking stress that if the area along which a linear force is applied is doubled, then what happens to the breaking stress. ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Can Van Allen Radiation belts act as a capacitor?

There are two Van Allen Belts at rougly 5000Km and 17000Km from the surface of the Earth each of them containing majority of one of the charges electrons and protons). Can these belts act as ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Vapour from a vessel's opening? [on hold]

I just noticed something interesting while I was in the chemistry lab. I heated some liquid( about 60 mL. Which consists of 20 mL of Oxalic acid solution and 20 mL of $H_2SO_4$) in a conical flask to ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Does irregular reflection form images?

In one of my test papers at school, we had a true-false question which said "Irregular reflection can form an image." I marked it true, however I was not given any marks for the question. I asked my ...
6
votes
2answers
183 views

Infinite dimensional vector spaces vs. the dual space

I just happened across this over on Math Overflow. It references the following theorem from linear algebra: A vector space has the same dimension as its dual if and only if it is finite ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Electromagnetism Boundary condition

The dielectric slab surrounded by air as shown in diagram has permittivity $\epsilon$ different from air and permeability almost same as air. Electric field everywhere within the slab is given to be ...
27
votes
3answers
2k views

What are galactic speeds measured against?

The Earth moves through space at 67,000 MPH. The Milky Way travels through a local group at 2,237,000 MPH. Wouldn't you need a fixed point to be able to measure velocity against? After all, compared ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

How is Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor $Blb$

I was reading an answer about torque acting on a rectangular current carrying loop kept in a uniform magnitude field B. Force acting on each sides is $F_1$, $F_2$, $F_3$, $F_4$. It's written here : ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Topological S-matrix as an operator in the graphical calculus

My question comes from the following classic paper by Kitaev: Anyons in an exactly solved model and beyond (arXiv link) In Appendix E (pg 86), Kitaev introduces a diagram operator $S_z$ which acts ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the temperature of the clear night sky from the surface of Earth?

Before you all jump in with 2.73 K or thereabouts, this is more of an experimental question. It will obviously depend on humidity and radiation being scattered back towards the surface of the Earth. ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Another condition of calculating work

Let's imagine that there is a box placed at the corner of a table, and I push it so that my applied force makes an angle of 30° from the table's surface. The box would move and, due to the effect ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Driven coupled oscillator [on hold]

Consider the following system consisting of 3 masses and 4 springs : Suppose i start to drive the system, for instance horizontally applying a sinusoidal force with frequency w to one of its ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

Current in Magnetic fields

I have two magnetic fields question (high school level) which require clear answers... When a current carrying conductor, such as a copper wire, is placed in a magnetic field it will experience a ...

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