-2
votes
0answers
13 views

Calculating the total energy required to deform a material [on hold]

How do you calculate the energy required to elongate a material by 10mm. The initial diameter was 56mm, initial length 143mm, final length 146mm and the maximum load was 93kN.
2
votes
1answer
14 views

LArTPC muon sign determination

What are some techniques for muon sign determination (w/o magnetic field) for fully contained muons, using statistical analysis? Especially because liquid Argon time projection chambers' sign ...
6
votes
3answers
589 views

Why should Conservative forces have their curl equal to zero?(intuition)

There are several conditions that must be met in order for a force to be conservative. One of them is that the curl of that force must be equal to zero? What is the physical intuition behind this? If ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Photoelectric effect and work function relation

Let's consider the graph above for two metals $M_1$ and $M_2$ showing relation between photocurrent and potential. First question that I want to ask here is that how do you relate stopping ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Question from Griffith's E&M chapter 7 [on hold]

Estimate the induction current in the copper tube assuming the magnetic field of the permanent magnet to be 1.2 tesla, the weight of the permanent magnet to be 20 grams, the diameter of the copper ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Every Galilean transformation can be written as the composition of rotation, translation, and uniform motion

Having heard many good things about Arnold's Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics, I picked it up and started going through it. While I think I understand all of the definitions he makes, the ...
1
vote
1answer
173 views

Infinite Resistive lattice problem

While there have been many discussions regarding the solution(say using the Fourier transform or the lattice Green's function approach) to the two-point resistance of an infinite-square resistive ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Deriving the Lorentz factor

Recently, I learned how to derive E = mc^2. However, to do so, one must accept the relativistic mass equation. How does one derive this?
1
vote
2answers
100 views

How does electrostatic force affect electronic devices?

How does electrostatic force generated by two seperate plates having opposite charges affect electronic devices? I know that magnetic fields have some harmful effects to electronic devices but I am ...
0
votes
2answers
55 views

Are black holes an infinite source of energy?

Black holes are considered particularities because in a determined point in time they are pointless, as consequence there are some mass in a null space so the density become infinite. Finally if ...
0
votes
3answers
43 views

What is the direction of the magnetic vector potential in an electromagnetic plane wave?

The vector potential $A$ is perpendicular to $B = \nabla \times A$, by definition, and hence, in a plane wave, it is either in the direction of $E$ or the direction of propagation. I suspect it is in ...
1
vote
1answer
252 views

Why is there a voltage drop across a superconducting inductor?

If there is no electric field inside a perfect conductor, then why is there a potential difference across an (superconducting) inductor?
36
votes
3answers
5k views

Why doesn't light affect a compass?

In our daily life a lot of photons of visible light, infrared and radio etc move around us. We know that light is an electromagnetic radiation. So why doesn't that electromagnetic radiation affect a ...
-2
votes
6answers
445 views

Momentum of stationary electron in a curl free vector potential

The essence of this question is simplicity itself: There is an electron in a curl-free $\vec{A}$ field. The electron is stationary so its m$\vec{v}$ momentum is 0. However, it has "momentum" from ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Magnetic flux of a loop due to another loop

The scenario is the following, I am given 2 loops with the same radius, r, a distance of d, and same current of I. In the left loop the current goes counter clockwise, in the right loop the current is ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views
+50

How does Dirac define the representative of $\{\langle\phi\frac{d}{dq}\}\psi\rangle = \langle\phi\{\frac{d}{dq}\psi\rangle\}$

On pate 89 of Dirac's book, The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, he writes: Let us treat the linear operator $\frac{d}{dq}$ according to the general theory of linear operators of section 7. We ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Condition on $U_{eff}$ for a mass to get trapped in orbit around a heavier mass

this question is now solved, and I have already edited the wikipedia page The wikipedia page on Effective Gravitational Potential states that $$U_{eff} \leq E$$ is a condition for a free mass getting ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Covariance of the Dirac Equation

i want to show that the following equation holds: $$ \frac{1}{8}\left[\gamma^{\mu},\omega_{\mu \nu} [\gamma^{\mu},\gamma^{\nu} ] \right] = \omega^{\mu}_{~~~\nu}\,~ \gamma^{\nu} $$ $\gamma^{\mu}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Faraday induction for seawater flow system

Magnetic flow meters use Faraday induction to produce a voltage across a channel in which a conductive fluid is flowing. The basic relationship (using convenient geometry so that the cross products ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

In a Stern-Gerlach measurement, does passing particles through the B field influence their spin state?

This question is similar to this post and was influenced by this discussion as well. Assume a Stern-Gerlach apparatus oriented along the z-axis acts as a measurement on the basis of the z-component ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Formulating a symplectic integrator for a non-local Hamiltonian

I recently asked two questions, Q. [1] and Q. [2], regarding reformulating non-local Lagrangians as Hamiltonians. In these questions, the Hamiltonian is formulated as an integral because of it's ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

How can we prove this system is in a stationary state?

I'm having trouble using the given hint to solve the problem. The problem statement is as follows: At instant $t=0$, the probability distribution of a particle under a potential $V(x)$ is ...
0
votes
2answers
132 views

Special relativity - twin paradox explored

A thought experiment. A person on the Earth has a clock. Another person who also has a clock is in a rocket ship passing the Earth travelling at 50% the speed of light. They synchronise watches as ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

Legendre transform for non-local Lagrangians, or Hamiltonian of non-local Lagrangian and their properties

This is sort of a multi-part question, mostly dealing with how to treat non-local Hamiltonians and how the corresponding properties of Hamiltonians work in a non-local framework. I proposed an example ...
2
votes
2answers
449 views

Geodesic equation from Euler - Lagrange

There are several ways to derive the geodesic equation. One of which is the variational method which I seemed to understand it because it was written in great details. Then it was mentioned that the ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Ricci tensor of Metric black holes with nils and solv geometries of Horizon

The metric of black holes with nils and solv geometries of the horizon is generically represented by $$\mathrm{d}s^2=-r^{2z}\mathrm{d}t^2+\frac{\mathrm{d}r^2}{r^2}+\sum_{I=1}^3 r^{2q_I}(w^I)^2$$ How ...
1
vote
2answers
91 views

An inconsistency in Hamiltonian formulation for non-local Lagrangian: what am I doing wrong?

This question is based on a previous question I asked, Q. [1] In this question, I proposed an example of a non-local Lagrangian (functional), I'm revisiting it here: $$\mathbb{L}=\frac{1}{2}\int^t_0 ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Perpendicular Current Carrying Wires Forces?

Hi guys, I'm having trouble understanding the effect of sides BA and CD on the straight wire. With an amperian loop around the straight wire, the magnetic field on BA and CD is into the page, and ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Determine the coefficient of static friction of a box

I have thought about a way to determine the coefficient of static friction of a box with centre of mass $c$. A force $\vec{F_e}$ acts on it at $c$. If I choose $c$ as my origin for a cartesian ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

About recent experimental evidence of Majorana edge states in topological superconductors

I have a couple of question about the recent experimental evidence of Majorana edge states in topological superconductors. Which are the main differences between the experimental signatures of ...
3
votes
4answers
8k views

What is the relationship and difference between BHP and Torque?

I've recently been looking into performance figures for various auto mobiles, and I see the terms BHP and Torque used quite often, but I can't say I really understand the terms, or how they relate to ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

Visualise the sound intensity

I'm studying Biophysics and my current subject is sound. One of the properties of sound is intensity. From my notes I can see the following definition: Intensity Formula is: $(I = w*m^{-2})$ or $(I = ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Charge operator for Dirac spinor

In QED, the gauge transformation which acts upon a fermionic field $\psi$ is $$\psi'(x)= e^{i \alpha(x) Q}\psi(x)$$ where $Q$ is the charge operator. Most of the time it's just written as $$\psi'(x)= ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Why is tree-level interaction between neutral scalar and photons non-renormalizable?

I've read that the decay of a neutral scalar particle into two photons, i.e., $$ S(p+q) \to \gamma(p) + \gamma(q) $$ can't happen via tree diagrams and instead is caused by loop diagrams (such as a ...
1
vote
2answers
28 views

If a vehicle (bus, train) rapidly stops (or accelerates, or turns), why don't our hair or clothes move from the inertial force?

Many times I was sitting in a train, watching closely nearby people. If the vehicle changes it's movement rapidly (brakes, turns, etc), then obviously, people feel the inertial pseudo-force that ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

What are the mathematical models for force, acceleration and velocity?

In mechanics, the space can be described as a Riemann manifold. Forces, then, can be defined as vector fields of this manifold. Accelerations are linear functions of forces, so they are covector ...
4
votes
1answer
69 views

How can one reasonably theoretically model polycrystalline materials?

Many techniques are taught in advanced solid state courses but they are almost all derived for perfectly crystalline materials. For example, band structure really only appears theoretically when you ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

Is there a friction or retarding force in creating spacetime?

As matter and energy expand with the big bang, they create spacetime (or so I've been told). Is there any evidence that this creation of spacetime has a retarding force on the expansion? If not, ...
1
vote
2answers
29 views

Electric Field At Centre Of Non Uniform Ring

In the above solved example why only the cos components have been taken for calculation of electric field at centre ? Why not the sine components ? BTW in case you say that the sine components ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views
0
votes
1answer
100 views

Question about Hartle and Hawking's universal wavefunction?

My apologies in advance if this question is poorly worded or doesn't make any sense, however I have just finished reading into this theory and it seems as though Hawkings No Boundary Universe is ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Does a source emitting visible light also emit infrared, microwave and radio waves?

I have a bulb which is hot enough to emit visible light and obviously it's hot enough to emit radiation which lies before the visible light temperature i.e. radio waves, microwaves, and infrared ...
0
votes
2answers
87 views

When the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation cools, where does the energy go? [duplicate]

I understand how photons can change wavelength via gravitational redshifting, but that doesn't seem to be what's going on with the CMB radiation. I've heard it explained as happening because of the ...
-5
votes
0answers
43 views

Is the present state of our universe due to a bottom up or top down process, or both? [on hold]

Bottom up is the main stream science view. Most models of the universe are bottom-up, that is, you start from the well-defined initial conditions of the Big Bang and work forward. The other view is ...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

In circular motion, with a constant distance, why does the mass of the orbitting object have no effect on its revolution at all?

Using Newton's universal equation and some circular motion equation, the orbiting object's mass cancels out. But can someone please explain why this is without using pure algebra?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Pressure in closed container [on hold]

I am wanting to figure out the pressures in my solar still so that I can figure out the volumetric flow rate(assuming no turbulence). For water to go 6 feet uphill it would require a lot of pressure ...
3
votes
2answers
666 views

Why do my ice cubes stick together? [duplicate]

When I put ice cubes in a glass of water, I find that sometimes they will stick together and form a sort of "bridge" between them as they melt. There is usually a visible line where one ends and the ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Metal Refractive index

I'm working on Fresnel equation for calculation of reflection of a light (532 nm) on Iron. I've got a question: Is metals refractive index always a real number or it can be a complex number?
1
vote
1answer
385 views

Does the universe follow a general physical and computational principle of evolution?

Evolution is a principle in biology, whereby organisms evolve their ability to replicate and multiply in numbers over successive generations. From a computational point of view, the organisms employ a ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Are there any research experiments concerning bending light around stars compared to bending light around large planets? [on hold]

Concerning gravitational lensing: Are there any research experiments concerning bending light around stars compared to bending light around large planets? I want to compare, extraterrestrial, massive ...

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