0
votes
1answer
14 views

Density distribution of black hole while cycling energy? [on hold]

I have not yet taken a course on general relativity, but from what I understand: -Black holes condense their entire collective mass into a central point (or ring if the black hole is spinning), and ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Surviving collapsing buildings: Which floor maximizes your chances of survival? [on hold]

Although this is not a purely physical question, I think this is the best StackExchange place to ask it. When a building collapses, which floor should you go in order to maximize your chance of ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Transmission lines…which one is high? potential or potential difference?

The electric potential at generating station is 11,000 V...why such high potential is generated there? From generating station it is transferred to local station...is there any electric potential at ...
22
votes
3answers
3k views

When a planet is heated through gravitational pull, where is the energy taken from?

Jupiters moon Io is heated through the gravitational pull of Jupiter, but when Io is heated because of this, where does that energy come from? How does conservation of energy work for this effect, ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Is it sensible to speak of the parity operator in 4 dimensional Hilbert space?

So I'm dealing with a system of two qubits, with the hamiltonian given by $$H = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} a & 0 & -b & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & -b\\ -b & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 0 ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Forces exerted on legs of a table

This is actually for a computer science homework problem, but I haven't studied any physics in five years so I'm having a bit of trouble. I'm given a table of three legs with their coordinates and I ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Strain-Displacement relationship symmetrization

In the context of infinitesimal elastic strain theory, one writes the relationship between displacement and strain as $$ \epsilon_{ij} = \frac{1}{2}( \frac{\partial u_i}{\partial x_j} + ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Proportionality and units

This might be very easy, but I'm not 100% sure how it's done. Lets say I have this equation: $$R = R_{0} \cdot \left[1 - \frac{P_{0}R_{0}}{GM_{0}\rho_{0}}\right]^{-1},$$ where I know $P_{0}$, ...
10
votes
6answers
553 views

Recommended books for undergraduate electrodynamics

What books are recommended for an advanced undergraduate course in electrodynamics?
1
vote
0answers
24 views

The reciprocal lattice of HCP lattice

There is a very similar question here Reciprocal Lattice of a non-bravais lattice, but I don't fully understand the answer, and the question is now obsolete so I feel that I should ask it again. How ...
4
votes
4answers
90 views

What is the actual energy content of the Sun?

Beside the energy released by nuclear fusion in the core, the Sun is a hot plasma of hydrogen and helium ranging from thousands to million of degrees. So how does that translate into energy ? I have ...
4
votes
2answers
209 views

Position operator in QFT

My Professor in QFT did a move which I cannot follow: Given the state $$\hat\phi|0\rangle = \int \frac{d^3p}{(2\pi)^3 2 E_p} a^\dagger_p e^{- i p_\mu x^\mu}|0\rangle,$$ he wanted to show that this ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

What's so special about velocity dispersion relations in astrophysics (M-sigma relation, Tully-Fisher, etc)?

I'm confused. Velocity dispersion of stars is measured by Doppler broadening, and through virial theorem that provides information about enclosed masses of galaxy bulges, galaxies, etc, as explained, ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Electric field due to continuous volume charge distribution [duplicate]

Since the Electric field at point (0,0,z) is $$dE = \frac{\rho vdv}{4\pi\epsilon_0R^2}\hat{R}$$ $$\hat{R} = \cos\alpha \hat{z} + \sin\alpha \hat{\rho}$$ where $\hat{R}$ means unit vector $R$. ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Inconsistency in the delta potential

I encountered an inconsistency in the one-dimensional delta potential. Suppose we have a one-dimensional infinitely deep square well from $-L$ to $+L$. We know the eigenstates are sine and cosine ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

How can we derive the gauge field Lagrangian?

I learned the gauge field Lagrangian is given in this form: $$\mathcal{L} = -\frac{1}{4} \mathrm{Tr}(F_{\mu \nu}F^{\mu \nu}).$$ But how one can derive this equation starting from defining the ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

how refraction takes place at atomic level? [duplicate]

when light beam is incidented at some angle on the surface of a medium some part of the light is reflected and some refracted. I want to know about refraction. As the photons interact with the atom ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Is it possible to improve the efficacy of light bulbs with a semipermeable mirror? (The greenhouse bulb)

Let us imagine that there exists a material that reflects infrared radiation, but is transparent for visible light. Could we take an incandescent bulb and add this material to the inner surface of the ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Can a liquid with angle of contact as 90 degrees with a solid surface definitely wet it?

Can we conclusively say something about wetting conditions at this boundary value of angle of contact ($90^o$)?
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Kinetic energy of fluids in Venturi Injector

Since the cross sectional area is smaller in the middle the water flows faster and experiences a smaller hydrostatic pressure. Additional mass is sucked in from the middle tube and gets accelerated ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Dalitz plot for $ \pi \to \gamma (1) + e^+ (2) + e^- (3) $

I am studying the decay above and I need an exact form of Dalitz plot in coordinates $m^2_{12}, m^2_{23}$ to integrate over three-particle phase-volume. Please, tell where to read about it? I tried ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Pattern on mesh office chair emulates thin film interference for curved surface. Possible to form an equation?

I saw a chair that looked like this at the dentists office yesterday, and the pattern caught my interest, as the light patterns emulated thin film interference fringes formed by an object that has a ...
3
votes
2answers
100 views

Why can we say that $\bar{d}Q=TdS$?

When we introduce entropy we do this by saying that: $$\bar{d}Q=TdS.$$ Now I was wondering why this should be true? I know that by looking at a Carnot cycle, we do get this relation for reversible ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Help needed to understand the dispersion curve of a 1D lattice with diatomic basis

I am trying to understand the dispersion curve (as shown below) of a 1D lattice with diatomic basis. Here are my questions: Can both optical and acoustic branch of phonon simultaneously exist in ...
3
votes
3answers
207 views

What is the Quantum Transition Time for Photon Emission?

When an electron in an atom changes energy states to emit a photon, how long does the process take? Is this question even meaningful?
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Few particle fermion system wavefuction

Suppose I have 3 fermions($\left|\psi_1\right\rangle$, $\left|\psi_2\right\rangle$, $\left|\psi_3\right\rangle$) and a system with 3 states ( $\left|1\right\rangle$, $\left|2\right\rangle$, ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Length contraction

I am trying to work out the length contraction using the Lorentz transformations. Here is how I stated the problem: Suppose a bar (whose proper length is $L$) is moving at speed $u$ (to the right) ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Group representations as vectors and isomorphism between weights and matrix generators

This might be something basic, but it is unclear to me. So I am used to work with representations of groups as matrices. These matrices represent the structure of the Lie algebra by satisfying the ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Find the current/potential difference across each bulb [on hold]

I need help solving this problem: Two identical bulbs are connected in parallel to a different source, one with E = 8.0 V and internal resistance 0.8 ohm. Each light bulb has a resistance R = 2.0 ohm ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Calculating the distance that a telescope can detect [on hold]

A typical 4-meter telescope is capable of detecting stars with apparent magnitude of +24 with an exposure time of 5 minutes. Using this exposure time, out to what distance (in pc) can this telescope ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Compute convective heat transfer coefficient for a condensing steam

I have a question about convective heat transfer coefficients. I am trying to figure out how much steam I can condense in this specific heat exchanger. Steam at 9 MPa is condensed in a 1 shell pass, ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Dynamics of modifing a Hamiltonian

I am working on quantum mechanics right now, and I am wondering if there is a qualitative way to think about off diagonal term of a Hamiltonian matrix? I know that we can diagonalize a matrix, then ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

Pedagogical introduction to vertex, domain wall, and kink

Recently, Majorana fermion becomes hot in condensed matter physics. The concepts: vertex, domain wall, and kink often appear in these articles about Majorana fermion. I have no idea about the ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Electric Field Resulting from a Conductor

In preparation for an upcoming exam, I've been attempting to visualize the electric field produced by a conductor in a variety of situations. I asked myself the following question and attempted to ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Where does the energy from a parachute go?

When a parachute slows the velocity of an object where does the energy go? If it's a falling object the acceleration from gravity is roughly constant. How does air drag "dissipate" the extra energy?
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Local unitary transformation that maximizes overlap

Could anyone point me in the right direction (reference to papers would suffice) regarding the following: Given two quantum states $|\psi\rangle ,|\phi\rangle \in (\mathbb{C}^d)^{\otimes n}$, where ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Normal Ordering the phi^4 interaction

I am trying to quantize the quartic potential $\frac{\lambda}{4!}\phi^{4}$ in a box of side length $L$, with periodic boundary conditions. I have expanded the field ...
4
votes
2answers
890 views

Is my interpretation of how a gravitational wave is formed correct?

I'm sure many here are familiar with the following image showing the 2D representation of how the fabric of spacetime is warped by the presence of mass:- Can this fabric be interpreted as an ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Right Hand Rule for Proton Magnetic Field

I thought that right hand rule was for find the magnetic field generated by a current, where your thumb point in direction of the current. However, I was watching something that said we can curl our ...
2
votes
2answers
31 views

How can we tell if a molecule is in thermodynamic equilibrium from scattering data?

We have a molecule that is emitting/absorbing photons. We know the Hamiltonian and that there are several levels. We count the emitted photons at different angles and frequencies. We can also do ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

What does “shortwave radiation” mean to a meteorologist?

I'm have an empirical model developed using surface observations of radiation (400-1100nm). I tend to think of this as visible, near infrared, and a little bit of shortwave infrared. I now need to ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

Charged particle singularity

Is it possible to manipulate magnetic/electric fields, similar to magnetic confinement technologies/penning traps, to compress charged particles into black holes?
0
votes
1answer
25 views

How is anti-hydrogen captured?

Knowing that the overall charge is zero, what mechanisms/technologies are used to capture anti-hydrogen? Where is it stored until annihilation? I am aware of magnetic traps being used to edge the ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Relativistic Doppler Effect and the Sagnac effect

What I think I know about the Sagnac effect can be found here. It occurs to me that the equations for calculating the time do not take the Doppler effect into account. I'm familiar with the very ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

How do we 'watch ' atomic interactions?

I'm relatively new to objective physics and it's measuring and imaging abilities.. Specifically I don't know if we can 'watch' inter/or intra molecular exchanges like the photonic and electronic. I ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How to see the ground state degeneracy (GSD) from a $BF$ theory in $2+1$ $d$?

I have seen many times the $BF$ theory has non-trivial ground state degeneracy (typically on torus), but I can not see how the conclusion come out. Recently I found a paper by Hansson, Oganesyan and ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Circuit Diagram [on hold]

Three resistor are put into play, two in parallel and another in series to them. One of the resistors in parallel is decreased. what will happen to the voltage and current.
0
votes
0answers
37 views

How can light have the same speed for all observers? [duplicate]

I'm a little confused on this. If you're travelling at, say, 10% of the speed of light then light is travelling at 3x10^8 ms^(-1) relative to you. If you're moving at 80% of the speed of light and ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Interaction Lagrangian forms

When a charge motion is given (known), the electromagnetic field can be explicitly found (Retarded potentials, etc.). The interaction Lagrangian density is $j\cdot A$ or in the action it may look like ...
-3
votes
0answers
34 views

Theory on what would happen if a proton touches anouther [on hold]

I came up with a theory on what would happen if two protons touched each other. I want to know if it is scientifically valid. If two protons repel each other, then the closer you bring them together, ...

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