1
vote
1answer
151 views

What is the interface tension between ordered and disordered phases of the Potts model?

I read in these papers(1,2) the concept of interface tension. I can't understand its definition. I can hardly imagine there is some tension in a model. Any help will be appreciated.
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Irreducible Representations Of Lorentz Group

In Weinberg's The Theory of Quantum Fields Volume 1, he considers classification one-particle states under inhomogeneous Lorentz group. My question only considers pages 62-64. He define states as ...
1
vote
1answer
642 views

What is tricritical point?

Critical point is the transition temperature of a second order phase transition. But what does tricritical point mean? WIki says that a tricritical point is a point in the phase diagram of a system at ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Calculating the moment inertia for a circle with a point mass on its perimeter

I want to calculate the tensor of the moment of inertia. Consider this situation: The dot represents a points mass, in size equal to $\frac{5}{4}m$. $m$ is the mass of the homogenous circle. I'm ...
2
votes
0answers
66 views

What is the relationship between complex time singularities and UV fixed points?

In this paper it is described how the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the flatness (a measure for intermittency) are governed by the position of the (dominant) singularities of the solutions of ...
2
votes
1answer
311 views

Parallel transport of a vector along a closed curve in curvilinear coordinates

There is an expression indicating the change of the vector parallel translation along a closed infinitesimal curve in curvilinear coordinates (one way of introducing curvature tensor): $$ \Delta A_{k} ...
1
vote
0answers
97 views

Null vector fields given Bondi metric

I'm trying to understand how to compute the null future-directed vector fields if I have a given (Bondi) metric $g=-e^{2\nu}du^{2}-2e^{\nu+\lambda}dudr+r^{2}d\Omega$ with $d\Omega$-standard metric ...
2
votes
1answer
175 views

Plane waves in QFT

Suppose we work in the metric $(-1,+1)$. How do we describe an incoming particle with a plane wave; $\exp(-\mathrm ikx)$ or $\exp(+\mathrm ikx)$? What's the difference? Does it change if we work in ...
5
votes
0answers
158 views

Identity in CFT

I heard and read couple of times reference to a certain identity in conformal field theory (maybe specific to two dimensions). The identity relates the trace of stress-energy tensor to the beta ...
2
votes
0answers
108 views

Creating matrix Hamiltonian for Feynman's CCNOT [closed]

I'm trying to read Quantum Mechanical Computer and to implement the CCNOT logical gate with Mathematica. Since i wish to use the SWITCH implementation of the CNOT [Fig.8] i've realized that i need to ...
9
votes
4answers
3k views

How can I understand a Vortex Tube and its efficiency?

A Vortex Tube takes a pressurized input stream, most typically of a gas, and creates two output streams with a temperature differential. Apparently, it has been described as a Maxwell's Demon. Both ...
1
vote
1answer
163 views

Energy eigenvalues of a Q.H.Oscillator with $[\hat{H},\hat{a}] = -\hbar \omega \hat{a}$ and $[\hat{H},\hat{a}^\dagger] = \hbar \omega \hat{a}^\dagger$

I just finished deriving the commutators: \begin{align} [\hat{H}, \hat{a}] &= -\hbar \omega \hat{a}\\ [\hat{H}, \hat{a}^\dagger] &= \hbar \omega \hat{a}^\dagger\\ \end{align} On the ...
0
votes
3answers
2k views

Paraxial rays and marginal rays question

Paraxial rays are found to focus far away the lens whereas marginal rays focus near to the lens, why? I didn't find satisfactory answer in my academic book..
2
votes
2answers
996 views

Density Operator, Expectation Value, Coherent States

How would I go about evaluating expectation values like $\langle X \rangle$ and $\langle P \rangle$? Work I've done: I've done the integration over $\phi$ and rewrote $\rho$ as: $\rho = ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

What exactly is meant by the conformal group of Minkowski space?

This is sort of a silly question because I'm a total beginner, and I debated whether it was better to ask here or on Math.SE. I decided on here because it's about how physicists use terminology, even ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

Integrating radial free fall in Newtonian gravity

I thought this would be a simple question, but I'm having trouble figuring it out. Not a homework assignment btw. I am a physics student and am just genuinely interested in physics problems involving ...
3
votes
1answer
222 views

CGS Units for Magnetism

Why does the formula for magnetic field force include the speed of light in the denominator in cgs units? Where does the extra $c$ go in SI units?
15
votes
6answers
1k views

Is there a momentum for charge?

Since mass and charge behave similarly, so, just like center of mass, I define a point center of charge, that is defined by $$\vec r_{qm} = \frac {\sum{q_i \vec r_i}} {\sum{q_i}}$$ where $\vec r_i$ ...
2
votes
3answers
156 views

If everything in existence were increasing in size at some rate, would we be able to detect it?

Would our eyes observe any changes? What about electronic measurement devices?
7
votes
1answer
871 views

Lookback Time & Age of the Universe Calculations

I try to calculate the age of the universe with the FLRW model: $$ H(a) = H_0 \sqrt{\Omega_{\mathrm{R},0} \left(\frac{a_0}{a}\right)^4 + \Omega_{\mathrm{M},0} \left(\frac{a_0}{a}\right)^3 + ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Finding surface tension of water at certain temperature and pressure

The question is: Using the Young-Laplace Equation (if applicable), find the surface tension (dynes/cm) for water at 20 degrees Celsius with 2.5 psi. Round to the nearest tenth. ...
5
votes
2answers
469 views

How do objects change their axis of rotation?

If I hold a pencil at its end and spin it, throwing it upwards, it will spin about its end, but will soon start spinning around its center. How is this? I would draw the following torque diagram for ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How would gravity change on a planet rotating around itself very fast?

Let's take a planet identical to Earth, but with rotation speed multiplied by ten thousand. What would happen with the gravity if it was spinning madly around itself? Would the centrifugal force make ...
1
vote
1answer
468 views

What are the rainbow and ladder approximations in a solid state physics context?

All references I find talk about quarks and gluons, where I have only very limited knowledge about. From it's name (rainbow) I guess it applies to fermions coupled to bosons and we're interested in ...
34
votes
3answers
5k views

Why does a supernova explode

This is really bugging me. When you look up some educational text about stars life, this is what you find out: Gravity creates the temperature and pressure to start fusion reactions. The fusion ...
5
votes
5answers
35k views

Why does the comb attract the pieces of papers if they're neutral?

When we rub our hairs with a comb, and then try to attract small pieces of paper, they're attracted by the comb. The pieces of the paper were not electrified before they were attracted. Then they ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

Why can't we accelerate objects past the speed of light? [duplicate]

Is there any intuitive reasoning behind why there would be this universal speed limit? It just seems so arbitrary. I know that there must be things that are unknown, but what reasoning is there behind ...
2
votes
1answer
809 views

inductance value of a single turn thin circular coil

the question may seem simple but I haven't found any fitting formula yet. The problem is the following: consider a single-turn, circular coil made of reasonably thin wire (diameter of the wire much ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Gauss's Law with Moving Charges

My text claims that Gauss's Law has been proven to work for moving charges experimentally, is there a non-experimental way to verify this?
3
votes
2answers
170 views

Consequences of compactness in physics

If we understand spacetime as a $4$-dimensional manifold $M$, from the point of view of physics what are the consquences of a subset of it being compact? My point here is simple: in math we usually ...
5
votes
1answer
5k views

Why does compressing a piston increase the internal energy?

When we compress a piston, its total internal energy increases, however I don't understand why. As the piston compresses, the temperature should change, as the total energy density increases. As a ...
0
votes
1answer
689 views

What would be the basis vectors for this 2D crystal structure?

In the above image, I have a 2D crystal structure. The lattice vectors are described by: a = {-1/2, -Sqrt[3]/2}; b = {1, 0}; and the location of atoms A and B ...
-4
votes
3answers
1k views

There must be free positive charges, moving oppositely to electrons for the wire with current to stay neutral

All popular expositions (e.g. these ones) of relativistic electromagnetism claim univocally that electrons in motion become more dense due to the speed. They teach that Lorentz contraction of charges ...
11
votes
3answers
3k views

Can Increasing the Turbulence Inside a Pipeline Economically Increase Flow?

"The velocity gradient in turbulent flows is steeper close to the wall and less steep in the center of the pipe than it is for laminar flows (Blatt p.97)." Does this mean that some degree of ...
18
votes
3answers
300 views

What happens to the electron companions of cosmic ray protons?

If primary cosmic rays are made mostly of protons, where are the electrons lost, and does this mean that the Earth is positively charged? Does the sun eject protons and electrons in equal number?
3
votes
0answers
89 views

``integrated vertex operators" in 1-loop open/closed bosonic string amplitude

This question is in reference to the first ~15 minutes of this String Theory lecture by Prof.Shiraz Minwalla, http://theory.tifr.res.in/Videos/strings28_24sep08.mp4 Can one give a reference ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

State emitting from an extended thermal source

This calculation is for a double slit experiment setup which is experiencing a far field radiation from an extended monochromatic thermal source. I assume the source is 1-D and it's length is $b$. ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Are all points in the universe connected?

Is it true that every point in the universe is connected or could be so theoretically? If so how is this mediated? Is it through the quantum nature of the fabric of space or is it through the ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Small charged sphere's motion in earth's magnetosphere?

Suppose that a spherical metal sphere with mass $m=10^{-16}kgr$ radius $R=10μm$ charge $Q=10^{-9}C$ travels with $v=c/3$ and is trapped in the earth's magnetosphere at a distance around $r = 1000km$. ...
3
votes
0answers
137 views

A particlar normal ordering problem [duplicate]

Say we have an expression of the form: $$ \left<0\right|:\phi(x)^2: : \phi(y)^2:\left|0\right>, $$ where $\phi$ is some scalar field. I have heard the claim several times, that in evaluating ...
2
votes
3answers
7k views

What is the difference between lattice vectors and basis vectors?

Google has not been very useful in this regard. It seems no one has clearly defined terms and Kittel has too little on this.
5
votes
3answers
638 views

Horizontal $E$-field for a charged conducting disk

For part of a simulation I am writing, I need to know the electric field emitted from a charged conducting disk. If the disk was laid out in the $x$-$y$ plane, I am interested in the field in that ...
14
votes
2answers
572 views

How to understand the emergent special relativity in the superfluid?

The superfluid vacuum theory was proposed to understand some features of the vacuum (aether) from the emergence point of view. Although made up of non-relativistic atoms, the low-energy excitations of ...
2
votes
1answer
848 views

Dopant concentration and changes in band gap energy

Thanks to this lovely website, I was able to pop out reasonable values for my band gap energies from a translucent material. As expected, I found a decrease in band gap energy due to my treatments. ...
-1
votes
1answer
533 views

Michaelis-Menten derivation for 2 enzyme substrates

We know that the Michaelis-Menten derivation for the following reaction: $E + S \rightleftharpoons ES \rightarrow E + P$ However, what if the reaction took place in a different scenario whereby: $E ...
-1
votes
1answer
229 views

Why there are constant numbers in the universe? [closed]

Why the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is always the constant $\pi$? Moreover many of you know better than me about golden ratio $\phi$, Euler's number e, and many other constants. ...
4
votes
2answers
197 views

Vector potential

I have difficulty understanding the following vector calculus example. Text can be found here. It is the 5th Q&A -- starting with equation (31.1035).It concerns finding the vector potential of a ...
4
votes
1answer
277 views

Does nature tetrate?

We see addition, multiplication and exponentiation in the natural formulae that make up physics. However, do we ever see tetration (repeated exponentiation) or higher hyper-operators in nature? ...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

A general wavefunction in a square lattice

Suppose we have a square lattice with periodic condition in both $x$ and $y$ direction with four atoms per unit cell, the configuration of the four atoms has $C_4$ symmetry. What will be a general ...
7
votes
2answers
492 views

What is the exact relationship between on-shell amplitudes and off-shell correlators in AdS/CFT?

In this answer to a question, it is mentioned that in the AdS/CFT correspondence, on-shell amplitudes on the AdS side are related to off-shell correlators on the CFT side. Can somebody explain this ...

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