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0
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1answer
39 views

Why is lead used for X-ray cladding equipment?

I've done some research and can see that the distance travelled by an x-ray through lead is far less than through other materials, but is there a more "full" explanation that I'm missing out on to do ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

What happens when fast moving electrons hit hydrogen molecules?

Just like the creation of X-rays. Where fast moving electrons are bombarded on some Heavy element. What happens if the we keep compressed Hydrogen instead of the heavy metals? Surely it will form ...
27
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3answers
4k views

Why do X-rays go through things?

I always heard that the smaller the wavelength, the more interactions take place. The sky is blue because the blue light scatters. So why is this not true for X-rays, which go through objects so ...
0
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1answer
22 views

In Crookes (roentgen) tube where does electrons come from?

In Crookes (roentgen) tube X-rays are generated by bombarding metal target by accelerated electrons. Where does the electron come from? Are they produced by ionization of residual air or from the ...
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2answers
66 views

Minimum Wavelength of x rays

So in an xray tube a small percentage of the kinetic energy of the accelerated electrons gets converted into x rays. Why then, is the minimum wavelength of the x rays equal to the maximum kinetic ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Is absorption probality modulated by interferance instanteneous or retarded effect?

Let say the absorption probability at some atom 1 location is modulated by photo ionized electron wave (ionized from 1) that scatters by neighboring atom 2 and returns to the 1. (Around the absorption ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Why the angular distribution of the X-rays from Roentgen tube is not along the decelaration of electrons? [duplicate]

As I understand the X-ray generation from Roentgen tube, is a result from the bremsstralung (and also characteristic lines): from decelerating electrons in the presence of the potential of heavy atoms....
4
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0answers
60 views

Antique X-Ray Tube Safety

I have this antique X-Ray tube in my lab. As far as I can tell it's a “Kesselring” free anti-cathode tube from about the 1920s. Is there a safe way to operate this tube and make some x-rays or is ...
2
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1answer
124 views

Continuous X-Ray spectrum

I'm reading Eisberg's Quantum Physics book and came across the following graph I know very little about the subject, but from that figure I understand that, depending on the energy of the incident ...
0
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0answers
17 views

X-ray energy and green intensifying screens

Does anyone have experience on working with x-ray rare-earth green intensifying screens at very low voltages? (10kV, 20kV max) Are they supposed to work at such low energies? I am wondering at which ...
3
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1answer
926 views

Why don't X-rays penetrate the bone?

My brother asked the simplest question ever: why do X-rays not penetrate the bone? I know it is something to do with the compact molecular structure of bone. What I really need to know is, what is ...
0
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0answers
12 views

Where can I find Lorentzian values for the width of spectral lines for fitting XPS data?

I'm trying to curve fit my XPS data. I would like to start with known parameters to have an idea. Does anyone know of places the Lorentzian (and even the Gaussian) of elements is located?
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0answers
18 views

Noise and resolution in synchrotron X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)?

I did not use a synchrotron X-ray source,but I suppose beams are highly collimated and inelastic scattering is little, i.e. small background. In such a case, is the pass energy of the electron energy ...
0
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1answer
87 views

What produce X rays?

OK , I already know: Fast electrons collide with metal atoms ,creates x-rays . But the questions is how those collisions create X rays. What I think (don't know if it right ! So I need help ) : ...
0
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0answers
22 views

What is the Best Electron Tube for creating X-Rays?

This is a question of Experimental Physics. I have seen that you can create X-Rays with a High Voltage Circuit using Electron Tubes. http://www.dangerouslaboratories.org/xray1.html. My question is, ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Conceptually speaking, why does synchrotron radiation arrise?

First, a bit of background. I'm a chemist who works with synchrotron-based techniques, but I'm focussed on materials analysis rather than synchrotron physics. I'm struggling to work out where ...
0
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2answers
31 views

Compton Effect, why does electromagnetic radiation lose less energy when hitting particles with greater mass?

One of the problems in Rae's Quantum mechanics book, at the end of the first section, relates to x-ray's scattering off either an electron or a carbon atom. Using the equation given to you in the book ...
2
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1answer
46 views

publication ethics [closed]

What does it mean if somebody publishes the same concept of my paper with some changes without citing it although the paper has been published 5 years before his, and the concept was clearly first ...
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5answers
2k views

Do free-electron lasers actually lase?

Free-electron lasers are devices which use the motion of highly energetic electron beams to produce bright, coherent radiation in the x-ray regime. More specifically, they start with a high-energy ...
1
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2answers
67 views

Is an x-ray maser possible?

I was wondering if lasers evolved from masers. They applied the same principles to a different wavelength. Would it be possible to create a maser at a higher wavelength, using x-rays, gamma rays, etc....
0
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0answers
41 views

How to detect transient X-ray?

I have a Mercury UV lamp (ENF-260C/FE) which is supposed to emitte UV light with wavelength of 254nm and 365nm (http://www.chescientific.com/ecat/Eng/spectroline.pdf). However it is found that during ...
0
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0answers
43 views

Sum rule in X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

What is the sum rule in X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)? how can I derive it? Can anybody explain the principle of sum rule in XPS or in spectroscopy in general? How can I apply it to a ...
0
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1answer
45 views

How do atoms scatter X-rays?

I am learning the theory behind X-ray diffraction but I have a question. According to the textbook I am using, X-ray tubes (in diffractometers) produce near monochromatic X-rays. In other words, they ...
0
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0answers
29 views

About X-ray Dynamical Diffraction

I am studying X-ray Dynamical Diffraction. I understood that X-ray Dynamical theory is used when higher-order scattering or multiple scattering terms in the Born series become important and cannot be ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Why higher FAT level implies more signal in XPS analysis?

In XPS analysis, the FAT (Fixed Analyzer Transmission) parameter controls the electrostatic field of an emispheric analyzer, called Pass Energy $E_P$. The FWHM of a peak of signal is given by $$\...
0
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0answers
133 views

Characteristic X Ray and Intensity-Wavelength Graph

This is somewhat the kind of graph given in my book. Questions- Q.1- Why is the intensity much higher for the characteristics rays than the continous spectrum? I understand that the wavelengths are ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

How do we know that the x-ray pattern is in the reciprocal space? [closed]

I wonder if any one can tell that why do we consider the x-ray pattern (for example, a x-ray pattern on a film for a crystal) in the reciprocal space? (I don't want any explanation about the Ewald ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Process of x-ray crystallography

This is a pretty basic question but I would just like some confirmation of what I suspect is true. As I understand it, the basic idea behind x-ray crystallography is that we take our crystal and hit ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Law of refelction for electron-metal interactions?

I was reading 'Webb's Physics of Medical Imaging' which had a diagram very similar to the following in it: The interaction not the electrons with the anode creates x-rays. This diagram indicates ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Emission of Characteristic X Rays

X-rays are emitted when high velocity electrons in an X-ray tube collide with a metal target. Some high velocity electrons on collision with the metal atoms cause an inner electron of an atom to be ...
1
vote
3answers
574 views

Why we don't use gamma rays, x-rays or ultraviolet to transmit data?

The greater the frequency range of a transmission medium, the greater the number of bits per second it can transmit. In other words, the bigger the bandwidth in hertz available, the bigger the ...
0
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0answers
60 views

How to convert the number of X-rays to one of the radiation dose units?

So I have been struggling while trying to wrap my head around how radiation dose from X-rays work. I understand how to calculate how many X-rays would come from an X-ray tube given some settings. I ...
-2
votes
1answer
59 views

Characteristic Ka X-rays [closed]

In an experiment one observes the characteristic Ka X-rays of two elements at energies of 6.930 and 7.478 eV. The higher energy line is due to Ni. What element is responsible for the lower energy line?...
1
vote
1answer
330 views

How to find the constants in Moseley's law?

Recentely we were discussing / learning Moseley's law in class. We have successfully constructed the most basic version of it: $$f=f_R*(Z-1)^2*(1-\frac{1}{n^2})$$ with $n$ being the main quantum ...
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0answers
31 views

Determining angle of distortion in a Rhombohedral unit cell

I have a film which is rhombohedrally distorted. I would like to measure by Xray diffraction, the angle of distortion of the unit cell. I can measure the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters ...
27
votes
3answers
4k views

How many X-rays does a light bulb emit?

I read somewhere that most things1 emits all kinds of radiation, just very few of some kinds. So that made me wondering whether there is a formula to calculate how many X-rays an 100W incandescent ...
0
votes
2answers
217 views

will osmium or lead stop all high-energy photons in a shorter distance?

I remember seeing a similar question to this one on Physics StackExchange once. Most of the answers were to the effect of "I don't like the way this question is phrased, so I will insult your ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Is it normal for radiation levels to be elevated near a medical imaging lab?

I work in a general-purpose, commercial office building where the first floor is dedicated to an x-ray / imaging lab for medical diagnostics. The public lobby of this building is routinely ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

X-ray characteristic radiation

A high speed electron knocks an orbital electron in the atom. This collision creates a vacancy that is filled by an electron from a higher energy level. My question is, what happen with both electrons ...
0
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2answers
149 views

How are Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA/DEXA) scans affected by surface stability?

Today I had my body scanned by a GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer installed in a small RV of a company that tours California offering body composition scans (image from Wikipedia article on DXA). ...
2
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2answers
109 views

Attenuation of X-Ray Radiation

I have a question regarding the attenuation of x-ray radiation in a Medium. Let us Assume we have a phantom like this: The darker the gray, the higher is the attenuation of x-ray radiation of the ...
1
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0answers
249 views

I have negative slop of Williamson-Hall plot, XRD data. Is this right?

I have Ag (silver) powder sample. I measured xdd of the sample and got very good 2theta peak. Since I want to know bulk modulus and Young's modulus of Ag(silver), So, I got williamson-Hall plot ...
3
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0answers
73 views

How large should an optically large fusion reactor be?

This is just theoretical consideration. I expect that size of the reactor would be impractical to build on Earth, but I'm interested how much. EDIT: perhaps it could be good for some huge spacecraft ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

What is the reason that EXAFS are done with monochromatic x-ray light?

Why is the light incident on the samples in EXAFS experiments monochromatic? What would happen if a broad bandwidth hits a grating and then all the diffraction spectrum goes through the sample and is ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Does the EXAFS oscillations occur when ultrashort x-ray pulse is used? Electron with a 50eV kinetic energy will travel in 0.1fs 4.2 Angstroms

In X-ray extended absorption spectroscopy (EXAF) an electron is excited by an x-ray photon into the continuum, the outgoing electron wave interferes with the scattered electron wave from the ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

X-ray background radiation

I'm running an experiment in gamma-ray imaging (although the main emission from the decay of Am-241 is ~60keV, so much more in the range of x-rays). I'm curious as to the sort of sources that would ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Understanding Braggs x-ray diffraction and why light is treated as a single “ray/line”

I'm not familiar with optics. So my knowledge of treating light as single lines is almost completely foreign to me. Although I do know something about EM waves and Maxwells equations, so you can ...
0
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1answer
45 views

X-ray pulse more powerful than national grid?

There is an article today in the BBC science section on the Linac Coherent Light Source, an X-ray laser in Palo Alto: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31483781. I don't trust the news with ...
2
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0answers
110 views

Is there a wavelength of electromagnetic radiation that can penetrate iron but reflect off iron oxides?

We can see corrosion or rust because visible light travels through air reflects off the material back through the air and into our eyes. But I am wondering if you could see the corrosion through on ...
0
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2answers
54 views

What is an off-axis peak in x-ray diffractometry?

I'm looking at a $\theta$ - 2$\theta$ pattern of my thin film which in bulk is cubic (bcc) and I see 001 and 002 peaks of the film. There is supposed to be a tetragonal distortion meaning that I need ...