Waves are disturbances that propagate through space and time. Classically, they travelled through a medium, disturbing the particles but not changing their mean position. Electromagnetic waves/particle-waves need no medium; they are disturbances in their respective fields.

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Frequency shift without affecting signal length

Non-physicist here. From what I've learned in university and what common sense says, a shift in frequency of a signal results in a change in its length in time. For example, if a sinusoid signal of ...
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499 views

Why does the echo for soundwaves hitting a vacuum come back out of phase? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Phase shift of 180 degrees on reflection from optically denser medium I've read in a physics book for musicians that, when a soundwave hits a near-solid object, it ...
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81 views

Fractional harmonics in musical Instruments

I recently did some Fourier transforms on different audio files containing saxophone or trumpet (John Coltrane/Clifford Brown). I found that with the saxophone, the frequency spectrum occasionally ...
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249 views

How does one explain this pattern generated by earthquake waving driving a pendulum?

How to explain this pattern generated by earthquake wave driving a pendulum? Specially, there are three groups of curves that look categorically different: 1) The group of curves outside the ...
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341 views

Skin depth of current density in magnetic conductor at boundary between two different materials

Imagine a magnetic conductor with a cylindrical cross section, surrounded by a coil with a time varying current of $$I = I_0\cdot \cos (2\pi f t)$$ The conductor is split into two parts, the first ...
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116 views

Critical bathymetric profile to maximize surge and minimize breaking?

Reading about storm surge, I found it fascinating that the gradual slope of the Gulf Coast of Florida resulted in a much higher storm surge but much lower energy release in breaking waves. Is there ...
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+50

Rope waves with a twist

In the picture you see a person walking a slackline. A slackline is a tensioned flatband of polyester. Typical tensions are between $1kN$ to $15kN$ depending on the length of the line. The lines ...
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174 views

Is this wave spatially coherent?

Is the following wave (the solid lines representing the intensity maxima) spatially coherent? I've been seeing different, seemingly contradictory definitions of spatial coherence. Some places ...
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383 views

Wave packet in curved spacetime

It is known that the classical equation of motion for a scalar field wave packet on a curved spacetime background gives the geodesic trajectory (the e.o.m. is $(\nabla_\mu \nabla^\mu + m^2) \Phi=0$). ...
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What makes laminar cascade break?

Near my house there is a mall that have a cascade, which has a pratically constant flow, and doesn't seem to have perturbations (at least near the edge where water falls), between its two levels. ...
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225 views

Relaxation time for deviations from spherical shape of a black hole's event horizon (and waves)

A different question about truly spherical objects in nature (Do spheres exist in nature?) made me think of a lecture I had been at where, as I recall, it was mentioned that the most perfectly ...
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Doppler's effect use

While i was in high-school i learn't the Doppler's Effect which if i remember correctly is: The Apparent change in the frequency of sound caused due the relative motion between the sound and the ...
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Difference Between Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction

What is the difference between Fraunhofer diffraction and Fresnel diffraction? I mean diffraction is just bending of light waves or waves in general around a point. So how can there be two types of ...
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355 views

The ubiquitous Planewave Ansatz

In physics, the planewave ansatz (meaning: an educated solution guess) is very ubiquitously used, when solving differential equations, in different domains of physics. E.g. to solve the dispersion ...
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Optical explanation of images of stars?

Very often when viewing pictures of the cosmos taken by telescopes, one can observe that larger/brighter stars do not appear precisely as points/circles on the image. Indeed, the brighter the light ...
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649 views

Liquid wave faster than sound in the above gas: possibility implications

I recently heard that tsunamis (meaning "harbour wave") can travel over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph), not so far from the speed of sound in the air. May it happen, in general, that a wave in a ...
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592 views

What is the wave in an electron? [duplicate]

For Photons, their 'waves' are oscillating electromagnetic fields. From what I've heard, electrons are also some kind of wave. So what 'field' is exactly oscillating for electrons, which makes them a ...
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What is the meaning of phase difference?

What do you mean by phase of a wave? And phase difference? Waves have always confused me as it's too difficult to visualize them. I am no good at waves mechanics, so if anyone could explain in simpler ...
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490 views

Physics of a guitar

I understand that when you pluck a guitar string, then a bunch of harmonic frequencies are produced rather than just the frequency of the desired note. If this is true, why does C2 sound so different ...
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How does a speaker produce sound?

What I read is that a speaker produces sound by the movement of a coil attached to a cone which moves back and forth. So, If I try to move the coil by hand, would it produce sound? If not, why? or Why ...
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Is speed of sound really constant?

Does not speed of sound actually depend on the frequency and/or amplitude of the waves? If so, why it is constant?
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Why do we think of light as a wave?

I've read that light travels in a straight line and has a wavelength of 400nm to 700nm. But I don't understand why does it have a wavelength and what creates its wavelength? I agree with the concept ...
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119 views

What makes waves propagate?

Why do electromagnetic waves propagate? I have searched a lot about EM waves, but I am still unable to understand what is driving them. Could you explain?
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What is the mass of a wave?

The slide called "QUANTA" here says that "One Quantum has a definite mass" and the picture shows a wave. So, What is meant by the mass of a wave?
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What's the difference between mechanical and electromagnetic waves? [closed]

I have a life science degree and even worked in research for a few years. So I feel I should be able to answer this question for myself, but yesterday my daughter blindsided me by asking why, if sound ...
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Is it possible to use “negative sound waves” to “cancel out” a sound to create silence?

I saw youtube videos that claimed to do this, although I'm quite certain the videos just excluded sound and lied. However, I am wondering if the physics of this is actually possible - to create a ...
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Which solution to the electromagnetic wave equation is the most accurate model of monochromatic light?

When a photon is modeled as a monochromatic electromagnetic wave its electric and magnetic components are usually taken to be sine waves (for example here ...
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Speed of a particle in quantum mechanics: phase velocity vs. group velocity

Given that one usually defines two different velocities for a wave, these being the phase velocity and the group velocity, I was asking their meaning for the associated particle in quantum mechanics. ...
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210 views

Why is the wave equation so pervasive?

The homogenous wave equation can be expressed in covariant form as $$ \Box^2 \varphi = 0 $$ where $\Box^2$ is the D'Alembert operator and $\varphi$ is some physical field. The acoustic wave ...
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371 views

Discretizing the Wave Equation in polar coordinates

I want to discretize the wave equation $$\frac{1}{c^2}\frac{\partial^2\psi\left(\vec{r},t\right)}{\partial t^2}=\triangle\psi\left(\vec{r},t\right)$$ in polar coordinates. I find the following ...
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what determines the wavelength of waves on the open ocean?

Looking at the picture below, you can totally see that these are tiny boats. The water is practically washing over the hull of these boat models. But the water has boundaries that are very far ...
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Confused over complex representation of the wave

My quantum mechanics textbook says that the following is a representation of a wave traveling in the +$x$ direction:$$\Psi(x,t)=Ae^{i\left(kx-\omega t\right)}\tag1$$ I'm having trouble visualizing ...
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Does space have to be filled with charged particles to carry electromagnetic waves?

I'm a newbie here so have mercy. I'm studying electromagnetic waves. This is the propagation of energy via the vibration of charged particles, as I understand it. A charged particle could be like ...
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Why do 2.4GHz frequencies offer greater range than 5GHz routers?

I would've thought that as 5GHz is a higher frequency, and it carries more energy, it would be able to pass through walls much more easily compared to a 2.4GHz frequency- similar to how short ...
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Optimal slit width in Young's double slit experiment

I'm trying to do Young's double slit experiment at home. Note that I don't have a laser, only a torch. I could get a bulb or use a candle though, if it helps I built the slits by cutting into a ...
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Producing photons with same frequency, different amplitude wave [duplicate]

I don't understand how two photons of the same frequency can have different amplitudes, neither how to produce them. I know that classically the square of the amplitude is proportional to the energy, ...
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Resonance modes of a cubic box of water which we shake

I don't know hydrodynamics, but I wonder how one would compute resonance modes of a cubic box of water which we shake. I believe the waves would directly depend on the height of water and the width ...
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What Exactly is a Shock Wave?

The Wikipedia defintion of a shock wave pretty much sums up all I've found online about what a shock wave is: A shock wave is a type of propagating disturbance. Like an ordinary wave, it carries ...
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Meaning of negative frequency of sound wave

Suppose that Alice and Bob are both holding speakers emitting sound at a frequency $f$. Alice is stationary while Bob is moving towards Alice at twice the speed of sound. In the case of Alice, if I ...
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Matter waves - DeBroglie's relations

I am currently studying from Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers by Taylor et al. They derive the DeBroglie relation $p=h/\lambda$ from setting mass $m=0$ in the energy-momentum relation ...
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205 views

What is a full cycle in damped oscillation?

Maybe it seems a dumb question, but I can't understand what the cycle in a damped oscillation is? Let's take an example: In harmonic motion, one cycle is the smallest distinguishable part of wave ...
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Besides vortex rings, are there other types of traveling waves that can carry matter as well as energy?

Vortex rings are a special soliton wave that are known to carry matter over a distance as well as energy. This can easily be demonstrated using a cardboard 'vortex canon' filled with smoke. The smoke ...
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How does one determine whether an object will make an EM wave refract in a qualitative way?

for example, i have a vague notion that the actual answer is that the permittivity and permisivity are different in each different material, so all waves refract at every boundary, but we only call it ...
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Wave equation for sound waves and moving source

Is there a way to take a moving source already into account when one derives the wave equation for sound waves and derive from that using only math the Doppler effect for moving sources?
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124 views

Must flow be supersonic for disturbances not to affect upstream?

I'm studying oil production and found a fact that puzzled me. It states that fluid flow downstream of the wellhead must be supercritical in order not to disturb the flow upstream of it. From ...
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186 views

Doppler effect and light

Approaching the speed of sound in an aircraft is relatively difficult, because the closer you get to Mach 1, the denser the pressure is around you (sound accumulates causing vibrations). Is there a ...
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2k views

Physical interpretation of Parseval's theorem

I have read that Parseval's theorem, relating the norm of a function $f$ and the norm of its Fourier transform $g(k)$: \begin{equation} \int |f(x)|^2 dx=\int|g(k)|^2 dk \end{equation} has the ...
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158 views

Transmitted Power and Poynting's theorem contradiction?

I was reading Chapter 12.1 in Hayt & Buck "Engineering Electromagnetics" 8-th edition. Here they discuss the reflection of uniform plane waves at normal incidence. They derived the following ...
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Overtones of Bells Over A Distance

The hourly bell tower sound at Indiana University Bloomington sounds like a higher frequency when heard from ~1.4 km away, compared to standing right next to it. Is this effect likely due to the ...
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816 views

Wave reflection and open end boundary condition intuition

I need to understand one seemingly simple thing in wave mechanics, so any help is much appreciated! When a pulse on a string travels to the right toward an open end(like a massless ring that is free ...