Waves are disturbances that propagate through space and time. Classically, they travelled through a medium, disturbing the particles but not changing their mean position. Electromagnetic waves/particle-waves need no medium; they are disturbances in their respective fields.

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Is this SISO (single input single output) or MIMO (multiple instead of single) system?

If I transform wave equation for vibrating string Mx′′+Cx′+Kx=b(t) in linear system using $x_1(t)=x(t)$ and $x_2(t)=x_1^{'}(t)$ vibrating string equation becomes $Md_tx_2(t)+Cx_2(t)+Kx_1(t)=b(t)$. ...
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103 views

Can sound reflect from itself?

If it is possible, what kind of conditions would be necessary? The case with electromagnetic waves could also be interesting, but I don't think that is possible.
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39 views

What is the distinction between a “ray” and a “wave” in optics?

What is the distinction between a ray and a wave in optics? From what I can gather, the only discernible difference is in nomenclature, where a ray simply refers to an EM wave with short wavelengths. ...
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25 views

Wave on a string to sound wave

If you have a string of 2m in length, and the wave speed on the string is 2m/s. and when then string vibrates at fundamental frequency the wavelength of the wave would then be 4m. However, the sound ...
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74 views

Question about the wave function of a travelling wave

I have a confusion about the wave function of a travelling wave. Suppose we have a wave function of a travelling wave travelling towards the positive direction of x axis $$ ...
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48 views

The property of transparent lens [closed]

My question is this : what is the property of transparent material that is used for lens?. I think that it allows the light to pass through ( absorption property) and does not bend the light ( ...
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37 views

Why do higher frequency electromagnetic waves bounce of of smaller particles in the atmosphere but the lower ones dont?

I assume they have more energy but what is it more deeper and clearer than that that explains it?
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19 views

What parts of a string stretch most when a wave passes through it?

So there's a (transverse) traveling wave on an (ideal) string under tension. Why does the stretching occur around zero displacement? Why not at the crests?
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173 views

Physical interpretation of source term in wave equations

Let me start with an example. If we base our calculations on the Newton's second law without any further mathematical treatment, then our equation describes equilibrium of forces, i.e. it is of the ...
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36 views

What are some of the empirical proofs of electromagnetic polarization? [closed]

I am aware of how polarization follows from Maxwell's equations, and how it is possible in transverse waves in general. I also know that Huygens, in his great Treatise on Light, first discovered and ...
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64 views

Books on waves with Fourier Transforms [duplicate]

There are many waves and oscillations books out there that also include Fourier analysis but very few give the subject a thorough treatment, they just pass it in a few pages. If anybody has any ...
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1answer
48 views

What justifies adding phasors' vertical components

I learned that, when superimposing two waves on top of each other to calculate the resulting wave's amplitude, it's helpful to use phasors. From what I gathered, phasors are vectors originating at the ...
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96 views

Physical meaning of wavelength of a EM Wave

The wavelength of a wave is defined as the spatial separation after which it repeats its shape. It is easy to visualize it for one dimension but if we consider a light wave/EM wave which is ...
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68 views

Molecular orbital theory

What I have learnt : When two waves overlap in phase, the resultant wave formed had a greater amplitude than that of the two interfering waves. When they overlap out of phase then the resultant ...
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64 views

General solution to the wave equation proving dependence on $x \pm vt$

I am trying to solve for a general solution to the wave function and demonstrate any solution has the form $f(x,t) = f_L (x+vt) + f_R (x-vt)$ I have used separation of variables f(x,t)=X(x)T(t) to ...
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117 views

What is slinky-approximation?

I was reading the derivation of wave-equation from Berkeley Physics - Waves by Frank S. Crawford Jr. Let $\Delta z$ be a small segment of a continuous string . At equilibrium, tension is $T_0$ at ...
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49 views

Zero stress boundary conditions for the acoustic wave function

When is it appropriate to use zero normal stress boundary conditions when solving the acoustic wave equation. That is when the pressure is equal to zero.
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68 views

Why use different arguments to plot a sine wave?

In my Electronics class was given some examples of sine wave graphs that represent voltage in respect to time, $v(t) = Asin(wt)$ and other graphs whose $x$ axis is $wt$ instead of $t$, like in the ...
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194 views

Wave equation - dissipation

The book states that the wave equation assumes no dispersion and no dissipation, with dissipation defined as a loss of energy and thus a diminution of amplitude. How can a spherical wave be described ...
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139 views

Why can't we define a unique wavelength for a short wave train? [duplicate]

Here we encounter a strange thing about waves; a very simple thing . . .namely, we cannot define a unique wavelength for a short wave train. Such a wave train does not have a definite wavelength; ...
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46 views

Is difference in wave number always small?

Over the last few days I have been looking at a derivation of group velocity. The derivation is the one shown in this question Deriving group velocity. I have seen this derivation in many places, and ...
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5k views

Why can't transverse waves travel through a liquid?

Can someone explain why a longitude wave can pass through the liquid, but a transverse wave can't. And can someone recommend some good animation of these processes.
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94 views

What is the wave propagated away from an impulsively excited spherical shell?

Consider a spherical shell of radius $R$ centered on the coordinate origin, and an impulsive excitation $\delta (t)$ distributed over its surface ('ie. a single layer'). Each point on the sphere’s ...
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82 views

The interference pattern of a wave along a line [closed]

Why the answer is B, but not C? Is it true that the pattern cannot go beyond $A_0$ and $-A_0$ at the same instant?
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1answer
143 views

Does rain jam radio signal?

I have experienced several times that heavy rain seems to jam the signal a radio of a bus receives. The only explanation I have is that the rain drops also become weak emitters, if a radio wave hits ...
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506 views

Why are speakers louder in a corner?

You can test this very easily using an iPhone's speaker pointed towards a wall. When the speaker is more than an inch or two away, it is normal volume. However, when the speaker is nearly touching the ...
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89 views

Speakers and Changes in Temperature

Let's say that there is a speaker that oscillates the same way. Now, let's say there is a sudden drop in temperature. I know the speed of sound would drop. But, what will drop, the wavelength or the ...
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207 views

Doppler effect and acceleration's impact

Can anyone explain why they say Doppler effect does not depend on acceleration? Would having acceleration not affect the frequency? If the source emits the first circular wave, moving at 50 m/s ...
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amplification of magnetic field

can we by any means amplify magnetic signal as we can with electric signal. As both electric and magnetic field can be represented in the form of a wave the analogy seems to be natural. I want the ...
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50 views

Time dependency of the phase of a single photon

I am wondering if a wave packet of a single photon in the time domaine $$ \psi(t)=|\psi(t)|\; \text e^{\text i \varphi(t)} $$ can have a different $t$ dependence in phase than the simple phase ...
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242 views

Wireless electricity through Wi-Fi power signal?

Could there be a method to obtain and send worldwide electricity through WiFi? I mean if we have internet everywhere and only need a WiFi device, can we apply the same to electricity technology? or ...
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221 views

Transmission of waves

How do you know if a wave will transmit when it hits a media boundary? Will a portion of the wave always be transmitted when a wave hits a media boundary? My textbook says part of the wave will be ...
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404 views

Intuitive explanation of the waves superposition

When the two waves collide, why do they pass right through each other? Mathematically it's due to the principle of superposition: the sum of the two solutions of a wave equation is also a solution. ...
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87 views

Does a light wave that has been cancelled by another light wave continue traveling forward?

I imagine that if a light wave is cancelled out by another light wave, it would still continue to exist as a photon that is traveling at the speed of light--only without a wavelength. Would it behave ...
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1answer
176 views

Ratio of energy of normal modes of string

Suppose there's a wave on a string represented by fourier series: $$y(x,t) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (-1)^n \frac{1}{2n+1} \sin(nx)\cos(nct)$$ I know the energy is $\propto y^2 n^2$, where $y$ is the ...
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118 views

Is there just one fundamental frequency?

I read simple definitions of the terms frequency, and fundamental frequency, which defined them thus, Frequency: the number of occurrences of a periodic wave during a second Fundamental Frequency: ...
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5k views

How do the particles in a standing wave vibrate in phase within half a wavelength?

I would like to have a better understanding of phase difference when talking about stationary waves. How exactly are particles in phase within half a wavelength in a stationary wave?
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83 views

Convective derivative of oscillating fluid with bulk motion?

I have a fluid $u$, which comprises a zeroth order constant motion $u_0$ as well as a first order oscillatory motion $u_1$. The convective derivative is $$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t} ...
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852 views

A difference between Plane Wave and Collimated?

Collimation is clearly in reference to ray($\vec{k}_{xy}$ vector) orientation unlike waterfront continuity( $\phi_{xy}$ phase shift) described by plane-wave. Not to say that one is not directly ...
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249 views

Can sound be propagated without initial mechanical interference?

I have researched up a little on sound, and it seems that sound is a mechanical wave that propagates through the air as energy, and that is how we hear it through our ears. Depending on the medium's ...
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770 views

A foundational question about harmonic motion : 2 pipes with different length and frequencies [closed]

How to solve the following question? A pipe open only at one end has a fundamental frequency of 256Hz. A second pipe, initially identical to the first pipe, is shortened by cutting off a portion ...
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119 views

Why the wave-particle duality cannot be explained as a traveling-standing wave duality?

This would explain why speed and position cannot be measured at the same time, since either the wave would be traveling (speed) or enclosed and standing (position). The act of enclosing it (to be ...
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685 views

What is the energy of a standing EM wave? Is it probabilistic?

In a cavity, the standing wave will constructively interfere with itself, so its energy gets higher while the oscillator is still vibrating. Since the vibration time is not a constant value, and ...
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126 views

Nonlinear Dirac's Equation?

Are there any nonlinear variations of Dirac's Equation analogous to the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, that have been studied and published in any mainstream journals or books? Perhaps such a ...
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2k views

Can a wave be two dimensional?

I am having a hard time picturing waves, the image that comes to mind is a bobbing device submerged in still water which generates pulses in all directions (similarly in air). Then how can a wave be ...
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46 views

Varying the amplitude of a driven wave

I' d like to know whether varying the amplitude of a system at resonance is possible or not and if it is, how? I've calculated the resonance frequency of a material and I'd like to know the ...
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1k views

Factors affecting the size of a shadow

What factors affects the size of a shadow and how would you derive the diameter of a shadow of a circular object on a flat screen?
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857 views

How to determine the direction of medium's displacement vectors of a standing wave?

Consider the following problem taken from a problem booklet. My questions are: What is displacement vector? And how to determine the direction of displacement vector at a certain point? Where is the ...
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1answer
263 views

Definition of energy

What is the definition of energy $E$ given a dispersion relation $\omega=\omega(k)$ where $k=|\vec k|$ and $\omega$ is not necessarily linearly proportional to $k$? What about momentum $\vec p$? This ...
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355 views

Why are clouds wavy?

Say you're in an ascending airplane as your 10 year-old son asks you: "Dad, why are these clouds wavy?" Now, say you know a little about gravity waves and the formation of wavy clouds(Maybe I should ...