Waves are disturbances that propagate through space and time. Classically, they travelled through a medium, disturbing the particles but not changing their mean position. Electromagnetic waves/particle-waves need no medium; they are disturbances in their respective fields.

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What justifies adding phasors' vertical components

I learned that, when superimposing two waves on top of each other to calculate the resulting wave's amplitude, it's helpful to use phasors. From what I gathered, phasors are vectors originating at the ...
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2answers
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Refraction, diffraction or reflection of human voice

Why is possible to hear in an open space someone's voice even if he's not facing me? Is it because of refraction, diffraction or reflection of the sound wave?
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Which wave works best?

I heard that gamma waves have the highest amount of penetrability, being able to penetrate even lead. On the other hand, my brother told me that super low frequency radio waves are used to communicate ...
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1answer
23 views

Wave equations - how to get a real solution from imaginary roots

Im trying to follow the derivation on how to solve Laplace equation used in my fluid dynamics course. We are trying to solve for the velocity potential in potential theory. So far we have this: ...
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1answer
14 views

Does background noise while strumming a string affect the frequency recorded?

Does the interference of the waves cause instances of destructive interference where there is no amplitude. Technically the wave is still there although its amplitude is 'cancelled' out but those ...
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1answer
52 views

Do two waves of different frequencies create a resultant wave of lower frequency?

In my results for testing background noise, i found that while strumming a guitar in: a noisy area, the frequency picked up by the mic was 352 Hz while in a quiet area, the frequency picked up by ...
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43 views

Why array of telescope is used?

To increase the resolution of an instrument, smaller wavelength and larger aperture is desirable. It is mentioned in some textbooks that the "effective" diameter of a telescope can be increased by ...
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1answer
24 views

How does temperature affect the frequency produced by a fixed vibrating string

How does temperature affect frequency produced by a fixed vibrating string? In the case of the sonometer experiment, the length is fixed so temperature cant really affect length. It affects the ...
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14 views

Question about dark fringe in diffraction

In finding the angle for the mth dark fringe of single slit diffraction using Huygen's principle, they usually split the slit into equal portions. For example, to find the first dark fringe the slit ...
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2answers
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Interference of two waves of different frequencies relevance to background noise + sonometer

If two sound waves of different frequencies are recorded then does the interference between the two waves of different frequencies alter the resultant frequency recorded. In better context, I'm ...
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1answer
32 views

Does the term phase difference apply only for sinusoidal waves?

This question may sound dumb, (it will to me, hopefully, in a day or two!), but does the term phase difference apply only for sinusoidal waves? Wikipedia defines 'phase' as the following: Phase ...
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2answers
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modelling the sound wave of a guitar string with an equation [duplicate]

Currently I'm doing a physics related coursework on guitar strings and wave. I would like to ask how I can model the sound wave of a guitar with an equation. I asked some of my teachers and they told ...
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1answer
25 views

Energy conservation in interference?

Does interference of light follows first law of thermodynamics? If yes then where does light vanishes in minimum interference pattern?
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1answer
43 views

How does one measure the phase of a wave?

Given an electromagnetic wave of unknown characteristics, is it possible to measure its phase? Or does it always have to be inferred from interference with another wave (e.g. beating etc.)?
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68 views

Why do not the ripples on a pond form a 3 dimensional wave?

I can see that that the expansion of the the circles happens in a two dimensional plane. Therefore, we say that a two dimensional wave is formed. But, why cannot we count the vertical disturbance so ...
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Pouring oil on choppy water to calm it , does it work and if so how?

Near where I live, local fishermen often bring cans of castor oil with them, to calm the water around their boats, if they feel bad weather is due. They claim this method of sea calming works, ...
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15 views

Waves ionsphere?

Explain why the ionosphere can be treated as a plane mirror when transmitting short-wave radio, even though it is a curved surface. Is it because the area involved is small?
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Find the diameter of the tube and frequency of resonance [closed]

A tube of a certain diameter and of length 48 cm is open at both ends. Its fundamental frequency of resonance is found to be 320 Hz. The velocity of sound in air is 320 m/sec. Estimate the diameter of ...
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142 views

Why is the wave equation so pervasive?

The homogenous wave equation can be expressed in covariant form as $$ \Box^2 \varphi = 0 $$ where $\Box^2$ is the D'Alembert operator and $\varphi$ is some physical field. The acoustic wave ...
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24 views

Determine beat frequency

I am currently trying to create a plot of the beat from superimposing two sine waves. I know the formula is given by $$\sin(\omega_1 t)+\sin(\omega_2 ...
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15 views

Determining the offset from a wave [closed]

From the figure below, determine the offset from the break-even point: (a) 1.0 m from the origin ; (b) 1.5 m from the origin ; (c) 2.0 m from the origin . Give your answers in meters, with a ...
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18 views

determining the speed of the wave by a picture [closed]

The figures below show the displacement versus time for two particles in a medium within which to observe the propagation of a pulse. From these figures, determine the speed of the wave. Could you ...
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Young's modulus of one material [closed]

You hit the end of a 1.5 length of metal bar me simultaneously triggers an electronic timer which is automatically stopped as soon as a microphone located at the other end of the bar, detects sound. ...
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2answers
113 views

How do we know that the CMBR is the oldest light?

How do we know that the CMBR is the oldest light which we can see? Is it based just on the facts 1.that waves redshift with expanding space, and 2.predictions of the big bang theory; Or is there a way ...
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1answer
25 views

Power of a wave in a string

My text of physics, Gettys', shows how the energy, both kinetic and potential, of a small element $\Delta x$ of a string, through which a wave (whose wave function is $y:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$, ...
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2answers
31 views

Wavefront explain [closed]

I know that asking this question is a little weird, but I cannot understand the wavefront after searching a lot of material online. Does a progressive wave have an infinite set of wavefronts? Why ...
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1answer
27 views

Conventionally, how many amplitudes does a (harmonic) oscillator pass through in one full cycle? [closed]

I don't know the typical scientific convention. My book says there are 4 amplitude. But no matter where I start the oscillator , the answer is at most 3.
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A heavy rope is attached to one end of a lightweight rope [closed]

If one end of a heavy rope is attached to one end of a lightweight rope, a wave can move from the heavy rope into the lighter one. (a) What happens to the speed of the wave? (b) What ...
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1answer
39 views

How large or small can frequency in the EM spectrum get?

The largest frequency range is gamma rays, but does the EM spectrum 'stop' somewhere? Like is there a limit to how large a frequency can get? Or how small frequency can get? Is it one of those things ...
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1answer
29 views

What really is the significance of the resonant frequency in terms of “ease of vibration”?

I was studying the concept of resonant frequency and I've read quite a few articles and notes on it. What I have understood from what I have read is that the resonance frequency of an object is its ...
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1answer
26 views

What is the Optimal Separation Length for the Tines of a Tuning Fork?

I'm building tuning forks (for fun... why not?), and among one of the design decisions is how far apart should I place the tines (the two long prongs) from each other. I'm not entirely certain whether ...
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1answer
70 views

Physical meaning of wavelength of an EM wave

What is the physical meaning of the wavelength of light? This question has been asked before but I cannot find a satisfactory answer. Some respondents have said that the question is vague, I don't ...
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1answer
35 views

Differentiating between standing waves (stationary waves) and progressive waves [closed]

The question is ''Differentiate between standing waves (stationary waves) and progressive waves?" I do not understand what exactly they would like to hear. Should we talk about the frequency, ...
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2answers
90 views

Why does a continuous water stream form ripples when colliding with a surface?

I was in the shower one day washing my hair, and noticed that the water falling off my hair formed perfect streams that ceased to break into droplets for quiet some distance (probably about 5-6 cm). ...
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3answers
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How to derive the formula for phase difference $\Delta \Phi = \frac{2\pi}{\lambda}\Delta x$?

How can I derive the formula $$\Delta \Phi = \frac{2\pi}{\lambda}\Delta x$$ for calculating the phase difference? On a relative note, why does the particle velocity have an upwards direction when ...
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42 views

Amplitude of wave with distance

How is the amplitude related to distance with waves on a plane? I am creating a mathematical model for water waves in a ripple tank, first assuming that there are no other factors that may affect the ...
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29 views

Wave propagation in micro strip waveguide

I am trying to understand wave propagation in micro-strip waveguide, the way i came to understand rectangular waveguide is this way (in brief): EM waves can be understood as reflecting from the ...
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25 views

What is the relationship between the velocity of an object and its Sound Intensity Level in an inelastic collision?

Assuming the mass, acceleration, and height of the dropped object are constant and the area of the measured sound wave is constant, would the relation be linear, exponential, logarithmic, square root ...
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How is the frequency unchanged in elastic wave scattering with a crystal?

it makes sense that with an inelastic scattering process, a wave approaches a crystal, and then some energy is imparted to the phonons, so that the outgoing wave has a different frequency from the ...
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1answer
42 views

Can we directly measure EM waves' frequency?

A crystal oscillator is: ...an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very ...
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1answer
104 views

Why do I hear voices when I touch my turntable needle?

So I was trying to figure out the reason why my old (and probably sufficiently damaged) needle on my phonograph (turntable) was not working like it was a little while ago. With my headphones on, I ...
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31 views

Can we indifferently make longitudinal/transverse waves in any medium?

Sound waves are longitudinal, in water/ ropes/ space, transverse. Can we make transverse waves in air or longitudinal in the other media?
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What is the amplitude of a (EM) wave?

Amplitude is: Peak-to-peak amplitude is the change between peak (highest amplitude value) and trough (lowest amplitude value, which can be negative). With appropriate circuitry, peak-to-peak ...
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36 views

thin film interference of light

In a thin film interference (reflective system) I know that condition for maxima is $$2\mu t\cos(r)=(2n\pm 1)\frac{\lambda}{2}$$ and for minima is $$2\mu t\cos(r)=n\lambda$$ and for transitive ...
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How does infrared radiation increase temperature?

Temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of particles in a medium. When impinged by infrared radiation, what happens on the microscopic level that translates that EM wave into the ...
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25 views

Dispersion relation in wave guides

I am reading Griffiths section 9.5. Assume that wave guides are surrounded by perfect conductors, and geometry is $z$-independent, as in the text. I understand he proved that in a hollow wave guide, ...
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53 views

I made a tin can phone using a plastic slinky and paper cups. Why didn't it work?

After watching some videos on Khan academy in regards to the information theory, I spent a few minutes creating a primitive "tin can phone." The materials of my phone are a plastic slinky and two ...
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1answer
27 views

Constructive and destructive interference

I read this information off a website: "The most important requirement for interference is to have at least two waves. One wave alone behaves just as we have been discussing. We shall see that ...
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4answers
117 views

How do gravitational waves work without internal tension?

One implication of general relativity is the concept of gravitational waves or gravitational radiation, ripples in spacetime thought to travel at speeds close to the speed of light. As far as I have ...
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What are the proper unit types for the calculation of the frequency of a tuning fork? [closed]

Wikipedia Article on the subject The formula states that the calculation of the frequency with cylindrical tines should be $$1.875^2/(2\pi L^2)\times(Er^2 /(4P))^{1/2}$$ where the variables are ...