A complex scalar field that describes a quantum mechanical system. The square of the modulus of the wave function gives the probability of the system to be found in a particular state.

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Solution for the Finite 2D Potential Well - Rotational Symmetry [closed]

I was searching for the eigensolutions of the two-dimensional Schrödinger equation $$\mathrm{i}\hbar \partial_t \mid \psi \rangle = \frac{\mathbf{p}^2}{2m_e}\mid \psi \rangle + V \mid \psi ...
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1answer
59 views

Wave packets and half-width at half-maximum

Suppose we have a Gaussian wave function and amplitude distribution function $$\psi(x) = (\frac{2}{\pi a^{2}})^{1/4}e^{-x^{2}/a^{2}}e^{ik_{0}x}, \qquad \phi(k) = (\frac{a^{2}}{2\pi})^{1/4}e^{-a^{2} ...
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Confused over complex representation of the wave

My quantum mechanics textbook says that the following is a representation of a wave traveling in the +$x$ direction:$$\Psi(x,t)=Ae^{i\left(kx-\omega t\right)}\tag1$$ I'm having trouble visualizing ...
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1answer
101 views

Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization for different potentials

Let's have Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization for one-dimensional case: $$ \int \limits_{a}^{b} p(x)dx ~=~ \pi \hbar (n + \nu ). $$ Here $p(x) = \sqrt{2m(E - U)}$, $a, b$ are turning points, and the area ...
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A misunderstanding regarding infinite square well

Here is a picture of the energy states of infinite potential well. We can see That the first level have a half wavelength which fittes with a full wave of the second level. $$\frac{ \lambda _{1} ...
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3answers
109 views

Question about derivation of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?

I am looking at the derivation presented here. The first thing I am unsure about is where the form of $\psi_0=Ae^{\frac{-m\omega x^2}{2\hbar}}$ came from. Also, is this form for all $\psi$, or just ...
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621 views

Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization from the WKB approximation

How can one prove the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization formula $$ \oint p~dq ~=~2\pi n \hbar $$ from the WKB ansatz solution $$\Psi(x)~=~e^{iS(x)/ \hbar}$$ for the Schroedinger equation? With $S$ the ...
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2answers
241 views

Ground state of Spherical symmetric potential always have $\ell=0$?

I was given a problem where I have a spherically symmetric potential (the exact form is not relevant to this question, I think - but anyway is it 0 for $r\in[a,b]$ and $\infty$ everywhere else) and I ...
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2answers
134 views

Why is time evolution of wavefunctions non-trivial?

(Note: This post focuses on a single simple example, however I'm asking about the error in general in my logic). Consider the infinite potential well "particle in a box" system described by ...
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4answers
423 views

Complex Conjugate of Wave Function

I've been reading through Griffiths QM book, and the only thing bugging me is they never fully described what $\Psi^* $ should be for any given function. I know it's the complex conjugate at the same ...
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54 views

Question about interpreting probabilities in QM [duplicate]

For the example of an infinite square well, $\psi(x)=0$ for $x$ outside the well/interval, and we are to interpret this as the particle cannot be found outside the well because ...
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3answers
646 views

Is there only radial motion in the Hydrogen ground state?

The ground state of the Hydrogen atom is spherically symmetric. In other words, the wave function Psi depends only on the distance r of the electron from the nucleus. As a consequence all ...
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2answers
154 views

Indistinguishable particles and probability density

I am given the following (probably simple) exercise, but I think I misunderstand something: Let $\psi_{a,b}(r_1,r_2)$ be a two-particle state, calculate the probability density for distinguishable ...
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3answers
552 views

Wavefunction, probability and impossible events

A friend of mine asked me a question, which I considered trivial at first, but after a while gave rise to some doubts. For instance, we have a potential well in 1 dimension defined by $$ V(x)= ...
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4answers
753 views

Is the wave function of a particle re-created after a measurement stops?

Yeah, I haven't quite understood, or been told, what happens to, for example an electron and it's wavefunction, when you stop to measure it? I mean, an electron has a wave function describing it's ...
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0answers
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Why isn't there a different phase after fourier transformation in two lattices

I am trying to understand some solutions for graphenes energy dispersion. While most of it is clear, I don't get one step, when changing into k-space. Consindering two sublattices A and B with ...
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Why the statement “there exist at least one bound state for negative potential” doesn't hold for 3D case?

Previously I thought this is a universal theorem, for one can prove it in the one dimensional case using variational principal. However, today I'm doing a homework considering a potential like ...
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2answers
366 views

Linear vs. quadratic dispersion relation

In wave mechanics the dispersion relation between frequency $\omega$ and wave number $k$ is linear: $$\omega_n=c k_n$$ But in quantum mechanics, based on Schrödinger's equation, one can show that we ...
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1answer
60 views

Do quantum physics apply universally at all scales? [duplicate]

Do quantum physics apply universally at all scales? Where do quantum physics apply? Does the nucleus of an atom abide by the laws of quantum physics? Like do we know the definitive/velocity ...
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2answers
94 views

How would you go about evaluating $\langle \psi \mid 100 \mid \psi \rangle$? [closed]

How would you go about evaluating $\langle \psi \mid 100 \mid \psi \rangle$? I just can't seem to figure this out, and I know it isn't hard.
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In Quantum Physics would a camera count an observer that causes wave collapse? [duplicate]

Would the observation from a camera have the same effect on wave function as the observation from a living being?
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1answer
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Quantum mechanics: Finite square well problem

What will happen if the potential is less than 0, for instance $V(x)=-10eV$. Is this means there will be no bound states? Since solution to the time independent Schrodinger equation (those discrete ...
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2answers
95 views

Wavefunction of isomers

In quantum chemistry, the wavefunction for a molecule can be viewed as the output of a function $\xi(m, n_1,..., n_k)$ with $m, n_i \in \mathbb{Z}^+$ that returns a $|\psi\rangle$ that satisfies a ...
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4answers
277 views

Having trouble understanding some stuff about delta functions [closed]

I was going through one of the examples in Griffith's Quantum book and there was a few things in Example 3.3 that I didn't understand that I was hoping to get some clarification on. For instance, we ...
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3answers
172 views

Variational Theorem proof

I have been trying to prove variational theorem in quantum mechanics for a couple of days but I can't understand the logic behind certain steps. Here is what I have so far: \begin{equation} ...
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1answer
91 views

Two Particle System with Identical Particles

I'm studying for an exam in quantum mechanics and tried to calculate the ground state and the first two excited states of two identical bosons (spin 0) in an infinite one dimensional potential well. ...
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2answers
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Minimum information necessary to represent a pure quantum state

I was thinking about how quantum states are represented for various types of systems, and how the amount of classical information (bits) required to represent a state depends on its basis. Let's take ...
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5answers
995 views

Infinite Wells and Delta Functions

In considering a delta potential barrier in an infinite well, I can just enforce continuity at the potential barrier-it doesn't have to go to zero. Why then does it need to go to zero at the walls of ...
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1answer
88 views

Inconsistency in the delta potential

I encountered an inconsistency in the one-dimensional delta potential. Suppose we have a one-dimensional infinitely deep square well from $-L$ to $+L$. We know the eigenstates are sine and cosine ...
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1answer
68 views

Few particle fermion system wavefuction

Suppose I have 3 fermions($\left|\psi_1\right\rangle$, $\left|\psi_2\right\rangle$, $\left|\psi_3\right\rangle$) and a system with 3 states ( $\left|1\right\rangle$, $\left|2\right\rangle$, ...
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1answer
217 views

Normalization of a wavefunction that's superposition of two unknown energy eigenfunctions

Question:$$\psi(x)=A(3u_1(x)+4u_2(x))$$where $u_1(x)$ and $u_2(x)$ are energy eigenfunctions. How to normalize function $\psi(x)$? My intuitive solution: I got ...
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64 views

Scattering and bound States

So from my understanding, as long as $E>0$ you will have scattering states and these scattering states will always result in an imaginary $\psi$, but bound states can also have an imaginary ...
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The Delta-Function Potential

I'm reading through Griffiths Intro to QM 2nd Ed. and when it comes to bound/scattering states (2.5) they say: $E<0 \implies$ bound state $E>0 \implies$ scattering state Why doesn't this ...
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Can anyone give me a simple proof for the sign change of electronic wavefunction when taken around a loop containing a conical intersection?

How and why does the sign of the electronic wavefunction changes when it is taken around a contour? For example, suppose the initial wavefunction is $f(s;S_0)$ at nuclear configuration $S_0$ and now ...
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Why do electrons in an atom occupy only the stationary states?

When we talk about the elementary problems in quantum mechanics like particle in a box, we first calculate the energy eigen-function. Then we say that the most general state is the linear combination ...
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1answer
698 views

Ground state energies with fermions of same spin?

Consider two non-interacting Fermions (half-integer spin) confined in a 'box'. Construct the anti-symmetric wavefunctions and compare the corresponding ground-state energies of the two systems; ...
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2answers
290 views

Particle in a Box: Energy Less than the Potential Energy

I am reading quantum mechanics from Shankar's Principles of Quantum Mechanics. On page 157 he defines the box potential $V(x)$ as $$ V(x) = \left\{ \begin{array}{rl} 0 &\mbox{ if $|x|< L/2$} ...
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1answer
68 views

How can an electron be fired at a target when uncertainty principle says it will spread out around axis of motion?

Consider an electron fired at a target. Taking the axis of motion to be $x$, and position to be $(x,y,z)$ then $\Delta y = \Delta z = 0$ Therefore by the uncertainty principle $\Delta p_y = ...
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1answer
250 views

Turning a finite difference equation into code (2d Schrodinger equation)

I am trying to convert the following finite difference equations into code (taken from the bottom of page 12 of this thesis by Maike Schulte Numerical Solution of the Schrodinger Equation on Unbounded ...
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1answer
264 views

Quantum harmonic oscillator solved by analytic method using Schrödinger equation and wave function

I'm having trouble understanding the recursion formula. Using $\xi \equiv \sqrt{m\omega/\hbar}x$ and $K = 2E/\hbar\omega$, the time-independent Schrödinger equation becomes $$\frac{d^2\psi}{d\xi ^2} ...
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1answer
161 views

Kronig-Penney model

I am studying the Kronig-Penney model as treated in the book by Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics. In this model one considers a period potential which is zero in the region $[0,a]$ ...
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0answers
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Find Equation of Motion given Hamiltonian

So I am given a harmonic oscillator in an electric field. At $t=0$, we are given that the oscillator is in the ground state. The Hamiltonian is: $$H=\hbar \omega[a^{\dagger}a+\frac12+\kappa ...
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1answer
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Correct approach for calculating excited states of circular quantum dot under effective mass approximation

From Asnani, Mahajan et al, Pramana Journal Of Physics 73 #3 (2009) p574-580 "Effective mass theory of a two-dimensional quantum dot in the presence of magnetic field", which can be seen here: ...
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1answer
84 views

Why can we leave off half of the general solution?

In these pdf notes, it says at the bottom of the first page and beginning of the second: [...] whose solution is: $$\Psi(\theta) = c_1 e^{i\omega\theta} + c_2 e^{-i\omega\theta}$$ Since we are ...
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179 views

Particle Outside the Box

What prohibits, mathematically, that a particle cannot be found outside the box ? Here, I am referring to particle in a box problem (infinite potential on both ends & zero potential along the ...
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Where to place the operator?

I believe it's standard to place the operator in between the conjugate of the wavefunction and the wavefunction itself. For instance, $$\langle p\rangle = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\Psi * ...
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2answers
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Differences between wave function and set of orthonormal wave functions?

I'm reading a QM book. It first says for wave function: "The state of a physical system (or particle) is completely specified by an entity associated with it called a wave function, Ψ , that in ...
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1answer
194 views

Normalizing wavefunction

If you are trying to normalize $\psi = A\sin kx$, and you find that $|A|^2 = \frac{2}{a}$, why do you take the positive square root and not the negative? What happens if you take the negative square ...
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1answer
126 views

Doubt in a certain equation of a research paper [closed]

In the given paper, I am stuck at equation (7). The equation that I am trying to solve for particle outside the well is : (1/g)*(g'') + (1/(r*g))*g' - (k_o)^2 = 0 where g = Radial wave function. r = ...
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1answer
111 views

On use of Hamiltonians for Helium

The Hamiltonian of helium can be expressed as the sum of two hydrogen Hamiltonians and that of the Coulomb interaction of two electrons. $$\hat H = \hat H_1 + \hat H_2 + \hat H_{1,2}.$$ The wave ...